I have many 2nd cousins. Over 100 I’m sure. My Hartley great grandparents had 13 children. All their descendants in my generation are 2nd cousins.Holly is one of those 2nd cousins. My first recollection of Holly is that she was creating a bit of commotion at our Town’s ball field. I was probably about 5 years old at the time. I had an impression that she may have been a relative but I wasn’t sure. Holly was challenging the local boys in a foot race and beating them. I was thinking that she was one cool girl.
So far on my Hartley side, those in gold below have tested and uploaded and uploaded to Gedmatch.com:
Note that Patricia and Beth are also first cousins to each other.
Here’s Holly’s grandmother Grace Hartley. I borrowed the photo from Holly’s Ancestry Tree:
Does she look like Holly? I think so. Except I don’t picture Holly as looking as serious.
All the Hartley cousins in the chart above have James Hartley and Annis Louisa Snell in common. But we won’t know which – easily. Another point is that everyone has eight great grandparents. So all the second cousins get 2/8 or 1/4 of their DNA from these two great grandparents. That is, on average. Here are the numbers of how Holly matches the tested Hartleys:
The Gen is how far it seems that the common ancestors are away based on the DNA match. James, my dad’s 1st cousin seems 2.5 away. That is just right for a 1st cousin once removed. Holly should match her 2nd cousins on average at a level of three. That is because our great grandparents are 3 generations away from us. Because of the random way we get our DNA, however, Holly is more closely matching Joel, Beth and Patricia and is further away matching on my four siblings.
The X Chromosome Rule
There is a rule that the X Chromosome does not pass down from father to son.
That means that no X Chromosome from Greenwood Hartley got passed down to any of us. That also means that no Hartley X Chromosome got passed down to anyone in my family. That is why Holly matches James, Beth and Patricia on the X Chromosome and only incidentally matches Lori and Heidi from my family.
Here is how Holly matches James, Beth, Patricia and incidentally my 2 sisters.
Holly and Jim have a longer match as they are more closely related (1st cousin, once removed). As a rule, the more closely you are related, the longer the segments.
Shared Autosomal DNA
Holly and I share this much DNA:
By comparison, here is my overall Chromosome map before I add in my DNA matches with Holly:
On my map, the James Hartley/Annie Snell part is shown in darker blue. It looks like Holly’s DNA could add quite a bit to my map. Ideally, if I could test enough relatives, the dark blue whould fill up 1/2 of my paternal chromosome. The other half should be from my paternal grandmother who was a Frazer.
Here is Holly’s DNA added in. I also added a maternal first cousin who contributed to my first substantial X Chromosome match:
Remember I get no X Chromosome from my dad (top part of each line). So that has to be blank on the X Chromosome.
Next I’ll add in 1st cousin once removed Jim to Holly’s map:
Jim’s contribution to our great grandparents is in blue. Notice that now the X Chromosome is kicking in.
Adding beth’s DNA to Joel and Jim
Here is the addition of Beth’s DNA:
Note that Holly has a lot of matches on Chromosomes 5 and 9. That must mean that Holly got most or all of her paternal DNA on that Chromosome from her Hartley grandmother, Grace May.
Kicking it up a notch
Next I’d like to add my siblings’ results to ‘the other matches on Holly’s Chromosome map. My siblings’ results plus mine should be similar in size to Holly’s matches with Jim, my dad’s first cousin. It takes 5 siblings to get about the same DNA as you would have for one parent. While I’m at it, I’ll add Patricia.
This is all Holly’s DNA that she got from James Hartley and Annie Snell, her great grandparents based on the matches that we’ve looked at so far. I probably should have lumped Beth and Patricia together as they have the same Hartley grandmother [Mary], but I didn’t.
Separating the Hartley and Snell DNA
One thing I would like to do would be to separate the Snell DNA from the Hartley DNA. If I could do this I could find matches that were just Snell or just Hartley. The DNA matching is about narrowing down the possibilities. The best way to do this would be to have a match that is known to be a Snell but not Hartley or a Hartley but not Snell. Unfortunately, I don’t know of any such people. The next best thing to do is to guess. One way to guess is called phasing by location. So, say I have a match with a lot of ancestors from colonial New England, but not Lancashire. And I would need to know that I match this person on my Hartley side (not my mother’s side). I would say that this would likely indicate DNA from the Snell Line. That is because the Snell ancestors go back to Colonial New England and the Hartleys came later from Lancashire, England.
My Chromosome 16
Here is a section of the first part of my Chromosome 16 matches (without the matches’ names) in spreadsheet form:
Each line represents a different match with someone. About half way down this list I have a match with Ned at 39.93 cM. I don’t know who our common ancestor is, but Ned has a lot of colonial New England ancestors, including the Warren Pilgrim family. I also am descended from the Pilgrim Warrens, but it is generally thought that a DNA match that large would be likely to last that long.
Triangulating with ned
Triangulation shows what common ancestors unknown DNA matches may have. Triangulation is when you match someone’s DNA, they match another person’s and you and the other person all match. Successful triangulation shows that all the DNA came from the same ancestor.
Here is my match with Ned:
Here is Holly’s match with Ned:
To close the loop, I have to match Holly in the same area of Chromosome 16:
No problem. This shows that Holly, Ned and I share an ancestor. By Ned’s Ancestry Tree, we think this is a New England Colonial ancestor, but we aren’t sure which New England Colonial ancestor it is. However, as Annie Snell has New England Colonial ancestors and James Hartley doesn’t I am pretty sure I can assign this segment to Annie instead of James.
This means I can update my Chromosome map with my first New England Colonial piece of DNA represented by Annie Louisa Snell on Chromosome 16. This is shown in light blue:
The other interesting thing about this piece of DNA, is that it not only is from Annie Louisa Snell, it is also from some New England Colonial person – the one I haven’t figured out yet that we have in common with Ned.
Other New England Colonial Connections Between Holly and Me
AncestryDNA recently came out with a new feature called Genetic Community. That feature lumps you into a group with a bunch of other people based on your DNA testing. One of those groups is called Settlers of Colonial New England. Here are my Genetic Communities (or GCs).
Notice I get a Likely rating for those Colonial Settlers. Holly, on the other hand, has one Genetic Community:
She gets a Very Likely. That means she is super Colonial New England. Holly has a Connection Link under her Settlers of Colonial New England. Under that link is another link that leads to “…a list of all 238 of your DNA matches who also belong to this Genetic Community.” Under my similar link I have 110 DNA matches. However, Ned that I mentioned above matches me under Settlers of Colonial New England. He doesn’t match Holly in her list for some reason – even though I showed that we triangulate. In addition, Holly and I match each other on our lists of DNA matches under Settlers of Colonial New England.
There’s plenty more I could have written about, but I’m a gonna wrap it up:
- Holly is more Colonial than I. I expect her other non-Snell ancestors contributed more in this area
- I looked at a way to separate out ancestral DNA when other reference matches are missing
- We are getting a good group of Hartley/Snell descendants that have had their DNA tested and have uploaded to Gedmatch.com for comparison
- I never knew Holly looked so much like her Hartley/Snell grandmother.