Visual Phasing: My Father in Law’s Chromosome 22

Looking through the visual phasing of my father in law’s family, I notice I am missing a map for Chromosome 22. Chromosome 22 is the easiest and hardest Chromosome to visually phase. It should be the easiest because it is the shortest Chromosome and should have the fewest number of crossovers. It should be the most difficult because it should have the fewest cousins matches. I assume that I haven’t visually phased Chromosome 22 because of the hard part.

Gedmatch One to One Comparisons

To do visual phasing, I need to compare my late father in law Richard to his two sisters in the Gedmatch Chromosome browser. Here is how Richard matches one of his sisters, Lorraine:

This shows that Richard matches his sister Lorraine all along the Chromosome except for a little segment between 43.6M and 43.8M. Hopefully this is accurate. Other comparisons should bear this out. By comparing siblings, we are looking at how many grandparents’ DNA they share. Green means that Richard and Lorraine share two grandparents’ DNA. More specifically, they share one maternal grandparent and one paternal grandparent.

Yellow means they share one grandparent on a maternal or paternal Chromosome and don’t share the grandparent on the opposite Chromosome. For example, if they share the DNA from a maternal grandparent, that means that they don’t share DNA from the same grandparent on the paternal Chromosome. This is all important information for visual phasing.

Finally, above the break in the solid blue line above is a red area. That means that in that little segment, Richard and Lorraine share DNA from neither of their grandparents. This is important information. Richard’s paternal grandparents are Butler and Kerivan. His maternal grandparents are LeFevre and Pouliot. So say Richard gets his DNA from Butler and LeFevre in that red area. That means that Lorraine must get her DNA from Kerivan and Pouliot in the red area. Those are the rules for Visual Phasing.

Next I put the three comparisons into Excel.

Then I look for changes in the colors on the Chromosome Browser. These changes should come in pairs. The first two changes are in the first two bars. The colors go from green to yellow. That means that the shared DNA goes from two grandparents to one. Lorraine’s name is associated with both those comparisons, so we say that Lorraine has a crossover there. A crossover is where Lorraine’s DNA changes. Before the crossover, she is getting DNA from one grandparent, and after the crossover, she is getting her DNA from another grandparent.

Again, these crossovers show up in pairs. A top/top pair assigns the crossover to Lorraine. A top/bottom pair goes to Richard. A bottom/bottom pair of changes assigns the crossover to Virginia. Above, Lorraine and Virginia got 2 crossovers each and Richard got three crossovers.

Next, I show the two Chromosomes that everyone has – in this case for Chromosome 22. Unfortunately, I don’t know which side is maternal and which side is paternal at this point.

These two copies of Chromosome 22 are blank for each sibling right now, but I’ll fill them in with four colors representing the DNA they got from each of their 4 grandparents. When the DNA changes from Butler to Kerivan on the paternal copy, for example, that is where the crossover is for a particular sibling.

Visual Phasing

Richard and Lorraine share a large green area. That means that they got the same DNA from one grandparent on the maternal side and the same DNA from one grandparent on the paternal side. The DNA from those two shared grandparents will be represented by two colors.

The blue and orange colors represent the DNA that Richard and Lorraine both share from the same grandparents: the same maternal grandparent and the same paternal grandparent. Unfortunately, I don’t know which side is maternal or paternal at this point and which grandparents they share. I just know they share the same grandparents.

Note also that Richard has a crossover at the beginning and end of this colored-in segment. We don’t know if his crossovers are on his maternal Chromosome 22 or paternal Chromosome 22 – or it could be that one crossover is maternal and one is paternal. That means that we will keep his blue and orange segments where they are – for now. However, Lorraine’s first crossover is to the left of the green shared area. That means her blue and orange DNA segments can move to her first crossover. The same segments can also be moved to the right up to Lorraine’s next crossover. No crossover means no change in the DNA.

This show that Lorraine got two pretty long segments of DNA. Let’s say she got them from Grandparents A and C.

Next we need more grandparents. We only have two out of the four. In the middle of Chromosome 22, notice that Lorraine and Virginia have no match. There is a large break in the dark blue line. That means that in that area, If Lorraine has DNA from Grandparents A and C, Virginia has DNA from grandparents B and D. Now we need two different colors:

To check notice that Richard and Virginia also have no match in a smaller area, therefor they also show two different colors in that area. Virginia has the last crossover, so I move the brown and green segments to that crossover.

Richard and Virginia have a smaller green area starting at position 43.8.

Richard has no crossover that prevent the brown and green segments from going to the end of Chromosome 22. That is as far as we can go with the bright green areas (which are also called Fully Identical Regions or FIRs) and the red non-matching areas. At this point we could look at the yellow areas which are also called Half Identical Regions or HIRs. Or we could look at cousin matches to see if they give any hints. I’ll look at cousin matches.

Cousin Matches

A first cousin should sort out the maternal or paternal side. I pulled up Virginia’s spreadsheet where I have a lot of her matches. On Chromosome 22, I notice 2 of Virginia’s maternal 1st cousins, Joe and Pat:

 

In Virginia’s spreadsheet, I have these positions in pink for Virginia’s maternal side. Next, I checked out some of the matches at Gedmatch and got this:

Here, #1 is John, a nephew. Nephews are not as helpful as they can be related on the maternal or paternal side. Note also that something seems to be going on around 25.4 M. This could be Virginia’s maternal crossover. In fact, I think that is more likely than having four other people having their crossovers there. #2 and #3 are Pat and Joe.  #4 is a maternal 2nd cousin once removed named Sandra. More about her later. Now that I know where there is a likely maternal crossover at 25-1/2M, I’ll go back to the visual phasing.

Visual Phasing HIRs

So far with the visual phasing, everything is equal on the chromosomes. That is because, we have only dealt with FIRs and no matches. HIRs upset that balance and make us choose sides. Because the HIR creates an imbalance of one copy of the Chromosome vs. the other, we only get one shot at doing that. I don’t know if my reasoning is right, but because I have some information already for the left side of the Chromosome (Sandra), I will choose an HIR on the right side. I will choose the small HIR Lorraine and Virginia have starting at 43.5M.

Here on one copy of Lorraine’s Chromosome 22, the blue goes to brown while the other copy remains orange. Next, I see that Lorraine has no more crossovers, so I can move the DNA colors over to the right.

In addition, Lorraine and Virginia have an FIR on the right, so I can copy Lorraine’s colors onto Virginia’s maternal and paternal side. Now I have a lot of Chromosome 22 mapped out, but I still don’t know which side is maternal and which is paternal. Here is how Pat matches with Virginia, Richard and Lorraine:

Remember that Pat is a maternal cousin. It is important to note that Pat matched Virginia and Richard but not Lorraine. The yellow pattern of Pat matching Virginia and Richard matches the green above that I mapped out. That tells me that green and orange are the maternal side and brown and blue are the paternal side.  So thanks to Patricia, my in-law’s have identified maternal and paternal sides. Yay.

Next I bring back some cousin matches:

I had guessed that Virginia had to have a maternal crossover due to cousin matches at about position 24.5M. #4 above is Sandra. She is one of my in-law’s top maternal Gedmatch matches. She also is a match at AncestryDNA. She doesn’t have a public tree but she told me who their common ancestors are:

 

Sandra is a 2nd cousin once removed to Lorraine, Richard and Virginia. As such, they share only one of my in-law’s grandparents’ lines which is LeFevre.

Here is how Sandra matches Virginia and Richard:

Now I can add in LeFevre in the green segments.

Once I know green is LeFevre, then orange has to be Pouliot.

Next, I was pretty sure that Virginia had a maternal crossover at 25.5. Knowing that, I can fill in the rest of the puzzle:

  • Note that on the left had side of Chromosome 22, there are three FIRs in a row going from top to bottom. That means the three siblings have their DNA from the same two grandparents. They all have Pouliot on the maternal side and either Butler or Kerivan on the paternal side.
  • The maternal side is French Canadian.
  • The paternal side is Irish.
  • There aren’t as many paternal cousins matches to fill in the blue and brown as there are maternal matches. I’m looking for cousin matches to fill in the blanks
  • Virginia has DNA from only one paternal grandparent shown in reddish brown.
  • Lorraine has DNA from only one maternal grandparent – Emma Alphonsine Pouliot
  • There will be parts of the Chromosome where there is no DNA representation from one grandparent. For example, no one got green LeFevre DNA at the beginning of the Chromosome. No sibling got blue paternal grandparent DNA at the beginning or at the end of Chromosome 22.

 

 

More On Early Butlers In the US

In my previous Blog on the subject, I noted how two Cincinnati Butler families were connected by DNA. These were the George Butler family and the Edward Butler family. Edward Butler is an ancestor of my wife. Since then, with the help of Peter Butler, I have expanded the George Butler tree a little. Now it looks like this side by side with the Edward Butler tree.

Previously, I was hoping that Edward and George were brothers and that they would have the same fathers. However, that now does not look likely. However, it could be that George and Edward were first cousins. If that is the case, that would make Lorraine, Richard and Virginia 4th cousins to Pat and 4th cousins twice removed to Uncle Naffy.

DNA Connections Between the George and Edward Butler Families

The tree above is pared down to include only those in lines that have had their DNA tested. Uncle Naffy tested at FTDNA and uploaded his results to Gedmatch. Lorraine, Richard and Virginia are also at Gedmatch, but Uncle Naffy matches only Richard and Lorraine. Here is the Uncle Naffy’s match with Richard which is the same as his match to Lorraine.

Assuming Richard and Uncle Naffy are 4th cousins twice removed, this was a fortunate match as the chance of them matching is only a little over 10%.

By comparing Lorraine, Richard and Virginia to each other and with the help of matches with Uncle Naffy and a paternal second cousin, I was able to map out the DNA for these three siblings:

Here I presumed that the Uncle Naffy match was on the Butler DNA side of my in-law’s family. That meant that the paternal cousin’s match below had to be Kerivan as that is the only other paternal grandparent my in-law’s have. Further, the paternal cousin Gaby only matched Lorraine on the left side of the pink segment, so that meant Gaby and Lorraine had to match on their Butler side DNA.

Lorraine and Virginia match Patty

Lorraine, Virginia and Patty all tested at AncestryDNA and match each other. Lorraine and Patty are predicted 4th cousins at AncestryDNA. Unfortunately, Ancestry doesn’t show on what Chromosome the match is like Gedmatch does. Virginia and Pat also show as 4th cousins. Further Pat, Lorraine and Virginia have shared matches with those on the blue line of the tree above. All of this confirms the DNA connection between the George and Edward Butler families.

Life For the Butlers in Civil War Era Cincinnati

I would not like to have lived in Cincinnati around the time of the Civil War. For one thing, there was a war going on. For another thing Cholera outbreaks were rampant. Here was a Mrs. Butler that died of cholera in 1866:

This could have been George’s first wife Mary Whitty – except the address seems off. At this time, people didn’t understand that cholera was the result of drinking contaminated water. At this time there was a George Butler, laborer listed in the Cincinnati Directories as living at 890 East Front Street. Perhaps around here:

The 17 on this 1869 map is for Ward 17 where George Butler lived in 1860 and 1870. My research friend Peter was able to obtain a copy of George Butler’s second marriage to Margaret Sinnott.

I have the greatest sympathy for the transcriber who wrote down Surwott for Margaret’s maiden name. The marriage was on November 11, 1866 at All Saints Roman Catholic Church in the Fulton area of Cincinnati. I’m not sure where Fulton is, but there is a Fulton Avenue in the map above. Apparently Fulton was a Town in the area that got incorporated into Cincinnati around the 1840’s.

Edward Butler and Family

According to the 1860 Census, Edward also lived in Ward 17. The Cincinnati Directory of 1860 lists a laborer named Edward Butler living at the c. (corner?) of Goodloe and Leatherbury. I was interested in this location because during the same year there was a listing for George who was also a laborer b. (boards?) Reed and Leatherbury. Here is the 1869 Ward 17 map again:

Here Leatherbury is spelled Litherbury for some reason. The Street above “Continued” is East Front. The Street below “Continued” may be Goodloe. For some reason, it gives me pleasure to figure out where ancestors lived. In this case, my wife’s ancestor Edward Butler and his likely cousin George Butler.

Edward: 17th Ward to the 3rd ward

For some reason, Edward Butler and family moved to the 3rd Ward where they are listed in the 1870 Census.  When I was looking at the Ward 3 map I found the All Saint’s Church. It looks like the Church also had a school.

It is near the T and L of LYTLE’S in the bottom right of the map above. The Church appears to be in Ward 1 and Whittaker’s in Ward 3. Here is how Wards 1, 3 and 17 connect:

Edward Butlers in the Cincinnati directory

There appear to be more than one Edward Butler in Cincinnati at the time. Here are some of my listings from 1859 to 1869:

The most consistent listing is for 66 Avery, but I don’t think that is our Edward. I mentioned that I liked the 1860 listing of Goodloe and Leatherbury. Then in  1862 928 R. Front looks good. After that, in 1865, Front and Whitaker looks good. That location is on the Ward 3 Map above. That listing matches up with his Civil War service that I have elsewhere. Here are some more listings from 1870 to 1876:

I had forgotten that I had ruled out Avery in the past as I have that Edward had a son George who was believed to be born in Chicago in 1873. Here the 1870 listing of e. 3rd is a possibility. The southern half of East 3rd is in Ward 3 which is consistent with Edward Butler’s 1870 Census listing. High Street in the Ward 3 map above is also 3rd.

The takeaway story could be that Edward lived near his cousin George in Ward 17 when he first moved from St. John, Nova Scotia to Cincinnati. He moved to nearby Ward 3 to work for the Navy at the end of the Civil War. He stayed in Ward 3 until moving out of Cincinnati. This move was probably around 1870 as his son George was believed to be born in Chicago in June 1873.

Edward Butler Family 1880 Census

That leads me to the 18880 Census. I had found this Census a while ago and have gone back and forth as to whether it is my wife’s Edward Butler family or not. There is a lot right and a lot wrong with the Census record.

I’ll look at each thing that appears wrong:

  • The mother is listed as Ellen rather than Mary. However, I have her as Mary E. Crowley. Mary’s mother was Ellen which is likely her middle name.
  • Ellen is listed as widowed which I don’t believe she is. She is also listed as what appears to be wife, though possibly transcribed as ‘self’.
  • Ellen is listed as being born in Illinois. However, her parents are shown as being born in Ireland which would be correct.
  • Edward Butler is not listed. Perhaps he is traveling or working away from home?
  • I have no record of Cornelius but he may have married in the area or died. He would have been born around 1871, so this agrees with the apparent early move date to Illinois for the family.
  • Henry born in 1875 could be Edward Henry
  • I have no other record of John being born in 1879, so he may have died young or stayed in the area.

This means that I am convincing myself that this is a valid document. I notice that other related Butler researchers have used this Census as a reference in their Family Trees. This does not place the family in Chicago, but at least they are in Illinois.

Milton, Illinois

Here is a Google map of Milton:

Milton is a lot closer to St. Louis than it is to Chicago. According to Wikipedia, Milton is in Pike County.

1920 Census: A nail in the coffin for Milton

On the other hand, there is the 1920 Census. This shows that we had the wrong family in Milton in 1880:

Here we have the same Ellen, Cornelius, George and John. However, this cannot be my wife’s family as the mother Mary (Ellen?) was dead by now and George and Edward Henry were living in Massachusetts. However, that is helpful as there is no need to further pursue Milton, Illinois. We still need to find the family in 1880.

where was the edward butler family in 1880?

I have been looking for census records for quite some time. I have basically lost track of the family between 1870 and 1890. I have the Cincinnati Census of 1870. I have indirect evidence that they were in Chicago for the birth of George Butler in 1873 and Edward Butler in 1875, but no direct records of the family being in Chicago. Here  is the Cincinnati Edward Butler family in 1870.

Here is Edward Butler 20 years later in Massachusetts.

This is from FamilySearch. The top says Newton. However, the bottom of the handwritten schedule says Newtonville. The transcription on the bottom says Watertown. All these places are very close.

The search continues.

 

Two Cincinnati Butler Families

One of my Butler genealogy breakthroughs happened with a DNA match between my father in law and someone I called Uncle Naffy. I wrote a Blog on that in 2015.

Prior to that breakthrough, I had trouble tracking my wife’s immigrant ancestor Edward Butler. Uncle Naffy was from St. John, New Brunswick and told me his great great grandmother was Mary A Butler. She was living in Cincinnati and moved to St. John. There she married. Armed with that information, I was able to find the marriage record between my wife’s ancestors, Edward Butler and Mary Crowley in St. John. The record was found in scrawly handwriting on a microfilm that was in the New England Historical and Genealogical Society Library in Boston.

This St. John/Cincinnati connection confirmed the research that I had done that had located Edward Butler and family in Cincinnati in the 1860 and 1870 censuses.

Uncle Naffy’s Great Great Grandmother Mary A Butler

Recently it occurred to me that it would be a good idea to create a tree for Mary A Butler to see if we could match up the two Cincinnati Butler families (George and Edward).

This was my first attempt. As I show later, the older children of George Butler would be from a second wife. My hope was that I would find that the George Butler above was the brother of my wife’s ancestor Edward Butler. One good thing is that I have that George Butler above, married Mary Whitty. Whitty is a less common name than Butler. A search for George Butler at Ancestry turned up this as a clue:

Here is a George Butler and Mary Whitty that gave birth to an Anne Butler on March 31st 1850 in the Parish of Ferns, Wexford. The good news is that the George Butler Family in 1860 in Cincinnati also had a daughter named Ann born about 1850 in Ireland. This is a good match.

A little more searching revealed a marriage between George “Butta” and Mary Whitty:

The transcriber saw Butta, but I can also see Butler there. I doubt that Butta is a very common name! As in the birth of Anne above, there is a Whitty and Hendricks as witness. The additional information is that they lived in Mountain Gate. I was curious as to where Mountain Gate is and was able to find a Mountaingate:

I have panned the map out a bit to show the relationship between Mountaingate and Mooncoin. They appear to be about 25 miles from each other. In one of my previous Blogs, I pointed out the my wife’s ancestor Edward Butler is listed as being from Wexford on one of his son’s death certificate.

Another Wife for George Butler?

There is also a tree at Ancestry that has Margaret Sinnett as George Butler’s wife. It appears to me that Mary Whitty died sometime between 1860 and 1870 and that George remarried.

Here is it clear that Mary must be from the first marriage as she was born before 1860 when Mary Whitty was still around. I could guess that Henry would be the son of Mary Whitty as there are 7-1/2 years between him and Rebecca. However, I cannot be sure just from the Censuses. So my basic take is like this:

I’m missing some children from George’s second marriage to Margaret Sinnett. I was having a hard time making this family come out right on the Ancestry Tree.

One last point about Margaret is that Pat has her mother Catherine as being from Killaspy, County Kilkenny. Here is a map showing an arrow where Killaspy is:

This was interesting to me because with the help of a Butler researcher in England, my wife’s Butler family has been located near Mooncoin on the top left of the map above. Mooncoin appears to be about 5 miles away from Killaspy.

Another Cincinnati Butler DNA Match

The previous image brings up another interesting point. My wife’s two Aunts have had their DNA tested at Ancestry. They both match Pat who descends from Rebecca Butler b. 1869 above. My father in law matches Uncle Naffy at Gedmatch. That makes a good case that George Butler is related to Edward Butler, my wife’s ancestor who also lived in Cincinnati.

Here is Rebecca Butler’s Certificate of Death showing her two parents.

This could be a case where the death record is not the best source of a birth date as Rebecca was shown as being 6 months old in the 1870 Census and born in October. So the day and month only are probably right in the death certificate.

Here is how my wife’s Aunt Lorraine matches Pat:

Pat matches my wife’s Aunt Virginia a little less: 29.9 cM across two segments.

Another Shared DNA Match At Ancestry

Pat and my wife’s two Aunts also have two shared DNA matches. These matches have this tree:

I’m not sure if it was Donna that took the AncestryDNA test. It appears that more than one in the family did. At any rate, the match is much higher. It is now at 183 cM across 9 segments. The average amount of DNA shared between a 2nd cousin once removed is 129 cM.

In comparison, here is Lorraine and Virginia’s tree next to the previous tree:

In the above scenario, Lorraine, Richard and Virginia would be 2nd cousins once removed to Donna and family. I’m not sure if Cornelias and John in Donna’s tree are right. Also, Donna’s tree has Henry, where I have Edward Henry. They are apparently the same person.

So Where Does That Leave the Butlers?

Here is a partially combined tree:

I say partially combined, because I haven’t connected the orange with the green side by genealogical research. I slimmed the tree down to just include the direct lines of those who have had their DNA tested. Uncle Naffy matches Richard at Gedmatch. Pat and Donna’s lines have not uploaded their results to Gedmatch. Pat and Donna’s line have shared DNA matches at AncestryDNA where they tested. Pat also matches Lorraine and Virginia at AncestryDNA. In addition, Donna matches Lorraine and Virginia. Richard and Uncle Naffy have tested at FTDNA, so unless Donna’s line and Pat upload to Gedmatch, those matches won’t be made known.

Summary and Conclusions

  • The George and Edward Butler families are linked by new and old world locations and DNA
  • More work is needed to link the George and Edward Butler families by paper research.

 

Chasing Down More Rooney Connections

In my previous Blog on the Rooneys, I looked at how my wife’s Rooney ancestors may be connected to another Rooney line by DNA and genealogy. I came up with a proposed genealogy/dna chart that looked like this:

Triangulation With the Rooney DNA Match

Triangulation is when three or more people all match each other on an overlapping segment of the Chromosome. This happens on Chromosome 14. Here are the Rooney DNA match’s matches with my father in law Richard (1), his sister Lorraine (2) and Gaby (3):

A Triangulation Group (TG) indicates a common ancestor. In this case, I believe the common ancestor to be Timothy Rooney:

Jenny’s Rooney Connection

There is another Rooney connection. Jenny doesn’t match my wife’s family as strongly as the Rooney match in purple above does.

It looks like Jenny has also tested her brother. The above chart shows that Jenny is a second cousin to the Rooney match discussed in my previous Blog.

Virginia and Richard match Jenny on Chromosome 11 from about 118 to 124M on the Chromosome Browser:

The DNA I have mapped for Virginia and Richard corresponds to their Kerivan grandparent:

This Kerivan mapped grandparent is the same one shown in green on the genealogy/dna chart above. It represents Lilly Kerivan, daughter of Alice Rooney.

Just so we don’t leave out Jenny’s brother, here are some of his matches with my wife’s family on Chromosome 3:

These matches are with Richard, Virginia and John. In my opinion, each match between my wife’s side and Jenny would represent DNA from Timothy Rooney born about 1807.

Here is Richard and Virginia’s Chromosome 3 mapped out.

The Rooney match would be in a Kerivan segment. That means that the dark red segment is probably Kerivan. The blue and purple above are on my father in law’s mother’s French Canadian side.

More Rooney Genealogy: Are Timothy and Terrence the Same?

Jenny and and her 2nd cousin Daniel have in their trees as their first Rooney ancestor Terrence Rooney. That is not surprising considering the marriage record of their great great grandfather, John Rooney:

Above are the listed parents for John Rooney and his wife. The date of the record is May 19, 1851. The record is for the Intentions of Marriage, so this would have been soon before the couple was married. Here is a marriage record for a John A and Mary Rooney:

The date of marriage was listed as May 9, 1851. Here quite a few things seem off. The wife is now Mary Rooney rather than McDermott and both parents are Patrick. They are listed as being in Boston rather than Dorchester although both places are very close. Note that John is a mason here. After a bit of digging, it appears that there were two John Rooneys of about the same age that married two Mary’s of about the same age. Isn’t that confusing!

A proposed sketch of Timothy Rooney

My thought is that Timothy Rooney, son of John Rooney and Ann was born in County Leitrim around 1807. He married Margaret Ann Gorman around 1828. Around 1830, he had a son that he named after his father John. Timothy’s first wife likely died and he then married Ann Nancy Lilly probably around 1832. She had about 10 children between 1834 and 1851.  John took off for Boston not too long before he married in 1851. Timothy landed in Boston in 1858 with his wife and some of his children in June 1858:

The 1860 Census shows Tim and family in Waltham:

Timothy died in Newton at the age of 74 in 1881. His occupation was listed as mason.

Summary and Conclusion

  • The DNA leads me to think that Terence and Timothy Rooney are the same person.
  • If they were the same person, the timing would seem to fit in. He would have had time to have two wives giving birth to the children that we know of.
  • The fact that Jenny, John and Gaby have matches seem to reinforce that the DNA that these two families share focus in on Timothy or Terrence Rooney.
  • I can’t prove that Terrence and Timothy Rooney by either the genealogy or the DNA. However, the DNA does point to a common ancestor. Why couldn’t that ancestor be Timothy or Terrence?

 

Chasing Down My Wife’s Rooney Connections

My wife’s father is half Irish and half French Canadian. On the French Canadian side there seems to be  a lot of genealogy and a lot of DNA matches. On the Irish side, there is a not so much genealogy and a lot less identified DNA matches.

Mapping the French Canadian and Irish In Laws

I have used a method to map out my father in law’s DNA that he got from his four grandparents. To do this, I compared him to his two sisters, Lorraine and Virginia. Here is their Chromosome 14.

The good news was that I could map the Chromosomes by looking at the DNA results of the three siblings compared to each other. Then I could find many matches to reference the French Canadian side. That got me the LeFevre and Pouliot grandparents above. The problem was that I couldn’t find enough matches to reference the Irish side.

Gaby to the rescue

However, on AncestryDNA I found my wife’s 2nd cousin on the Irish side. Because of Gaby, I can now tell which of my father in law’s grandparents are Irish.

Any DNA matches that Gaby has in common with Lorraine, Richard or Virginia are Irish. Gaby and my wife Marie, share the same Butler and Kerivan Irish ancestors. The next problem is that we can’t tell whether these matches are Kerivan or Butler.

Working Gedmatch To Get Kerivan and/or Butler Matches

In order to separate the Butlers from the Kerivans, we need to find matches that are further out. To find these I looked at DNA matches at Gedmatch that matched both Gaby and Lorraine. I used Lorraine because she was tested at AncestryDNA. The matches would be on the Irish side. That was the first cut. Next, I hoped that some of these matches would have trees at Ancestry that would match my in-law’s tree.

For example, here is someone that matched both Lorraine and Gaby on our example Chromosome 14.

The above image shows how Lorraine matches someone with a Rooney name (#1) and Gaby (#2). This tells me that this Rooney match is on the paternal side or Irish side, so that is also good. The other good thing is that my father in law’s grandmother’s mother was a Rooney:

All I have to show is that the match indicated in yellow above with the Rooney name is related to Alice Mary Rooney above. There were other common surnames, so the match didn’t have to be a Rooney. However, I noticed that there were some Rooneys in Massachusetts which is where my wife’s Rooney ancestors lived. Based on that, I thought that it would be a good idea to start with Rooney.

Doing the Rooney Genealogy

Lorraine’s Rooney AncestryDNA match that is also at Gedmatch and matches with Gaby at Chromosome has a Rooney Tree:

However, these two trees seem a little out of whack. Maybe Timothy Rooney in my wife’s tree could be a brother of Terrance Rooney in the Rooney tree?

A third Rooney Tree

I found another Rooney tree as an Ancestry Hint. It looks like this in a different view:

This tree shows that Timothy Rooney had two wives. It appears that Margaret Gorman was the first wife and had a John Rooney born 1827. Apparently Ann Nancy Lilley was the second wife and had Alice Mary Rooney. That could explain why the two trees didn’t match up. This tree shows the Terrence Rooney from the Rooney Tree as the same Timothy Rooney from my tree.

Putting the rooney trees together

Assuming that the Rooney Tree reconciliation was correct, the Rooney DNA match on the bottom right in purple would be a 1/2 third cousin once removed to my father in law Richard and his two sisters.

Back to the Chromosome 14 Map

That looks better. We now have the paternal side thanks to Gaby and a Rooney match. When I check the Rooney match, he matches Lorraine and Richard, but not Virginia.

The yellow matches on the Gedmatch Chromosome browser correspond with the green in the Chromosome 14 map above. The crossover for Richard at 54M also shows up.

The other good thing about the new Chromosome map is that it shows where the Butler matches would be. This is like a spy glass looking into the past. A match on the Butler side is like a match with Virginia’s grandfather who was born in 1875. Matches to these grandparents should be helpful in straightening out my wife’s Irish genealogy.

Summary

  • Use a paternal cousin to find other paternal cousin matches that are more distant
  • Connect that further out cousin to a known ancestor
  • Use that further out cousin match to complete a Chromosome map
  • Use that completed Chromosome map to identify other cousins as they match in identified areas of the Chromosome map representing grandparents of my father in law.
  • Use those identified matches to focus on further genealogy and break down former research barriers.
  • This method works best with people that have DNA testing results at both Gedmatch and Ancestry.

Gaby’s Butler and Kerivan DNA

My wife’s cousin Gaby recently uploaded her AncestryDNA results to gedmatch. That is good news for my Butler and Kerivan research. My wife’s father is a Butler and a Kerivan on his father’s side. However, because he is also half French Canadian on his mother’s side, he gets a lot of French Canadian matches. Those matches make if difficult to find the Irish Butler and Kerivan DNA matches.

Gaby’s Overall DNA Matches at Gedmatch

Here are Gaby’s top DNA matches at Gedmatch:

  • Already, there are a few interesting things. One is that Gaby has some X Chromosome matches with Virginia and Lorraine. Virginia and Lorraine are my wife’s aunts. We will look at that later.
  • The next point is that Gaby shares about the same amount of DNA with my wife Marie as she does with Marie’s Aunt Lorraine. Such is the randomness of DNA inheritance. Gen in the Chart above means generations to a common ancestor. For example, first cousins have 2 generations to their common or shared grandparents. Marie’s ‘Gen’ amount should be 3.0 (on average) to Gaby as those two are second cousins. Aunt Lorraine should be 2.5 from Gaby as they are 1st cousins once removed.

Butler/Kerivan Genealogy

Here is a brief genealogy as it relates to those close relatives DNA tested and uploaded to Gematch:

Those that have DNA tested and are listed at Gedmatch are in dark bold. Marie, John and Gaby are each 2nd cousins to each other. The 5 testers on the left will share French Canadian LeFevre DNA with each other. However, now with Gaby, the left hand side above will share only Butler and Kerivan DNA. Likewise from Gaby’s point of view, her matches take her Melsis ancestors out of the matching.

Kerivan X Chromosome Matches

I mentioned above that Gaby matches Lorraine and Virginia by X Chromosome. My guess is those matches are Kerivan and not Butler matches. Why do I think that? The important thing to note about the X Chromosome is that the son inherits no X Chromosome from the father. However, Lorraine and Virginia inherited an X Chromosome from their father, Edward Butler b. 1904. That Edward inherited no X from his dad, but did inherit X from his mother Lillie Frances Kerivan, born 1874.

Here is Lily Kerivan’s X DNA that is shared between Gaby, Lorraine, and Virginia:

gaby’s additional X Chromosome DNA

But there is more. Gaby gets more X Chromosome DNA than those on the left side of the Butler/Kerivan genealogy chart. Gaby gets some Crowley X Chromosome DNA.

Following up the tree from Gaby, she got X DNA from her mom, who got it from her mom Lily Butler. Lily got her X DNA from her mom and dad Edward Henry Butler. Edward got all of his X Chromosome from his mom Mary Crowley, b. 1838 in St Johns, New Brunswick. So Gaby may have some of  this old X Chromosome DNA. I say she may as we don’t know for sure. Perhaps it dropped out along the way. However, the potential is there.

Finding other Butlers and kerivans

One way to find other matches on the  Butler and Kerivan sides is to run a utility at Gedmatch. The utility is called ‘People who match one or both of 2 kits’. We are interested in those who match both my father in law Richard and Gaby.

If I choose Richard’s kit number first, I’ll get those in common with Gaby that match Richard. If I choose Gaby’s kit number first, I’ll get her matches that are in common with Richard. I’ll choose Richard’s kit number first as I already have a spreadsheet of a lot of his matches. Here are the results:

I left out the kit numbers on the left and the emails on the right. Also on the right is a check box to choose all the matches where they can be compared. The first three columns are for Richard and the second three are for Gaby. When I pick a lot of the check boxes, I can then compare them in a Chromosome browser.

This is an example of one of the Chromosome’s results. #1 on the browser is a Rooney. There are Rooney’s on the Kerivan side, so this is a good sign. #2 is Gaby. It looks like she is related to #3 also. Now I can go to Richard’s match spreadsheet. I can make an educated guess that both these matches are on his Paternal side.

The first entry in blue above is the Rooney person. The second in blue is Gaby. Others in blue are likely related along that Kerivan or likely Rooney line. The blue means a paternal match. Notice that there are a few other matches with known relatives above that are maternal matches in the same area of the Chromosome. I have them in pink for maternal. Knowing if your matches are paternal or maternal is one of the most important things to know about autosomal DNA matching. If you get that wrong, you will be chasing DNA down the wrong road.

A Toehold On the Paternal Side Butler DNA

In my last Blog, I visually mapped my father in law and his two sisters on their Chromosome 2. I was happy with the results as I got all their segments mapped on the maternal and paternal sides. I mentioned the difficulty in finding matches on the paternal side. The paternal match that I did have was not set in stone. It was somewhat inferred by email correspondence. I think of it as a construction job. The first few pieces of wood put in are a bit shaky until the rest of the structure is built around those first few pieces.

The Problem

The problem can be seen well at AncestryDNA. I have my Butler father in law tested at FTDNA, but his two sisters are tested at AncestryDNA. Here are Lorraine and Virginia’s Shared Ancestor Hints (SAHs):

Lorraine and Virginia Share 38 SAHs. I can tell this on my laptop that has Chrome as there is a icon for the shared Shared Ancestor Hints. All of Lorraine’s SAHs are on the maternal side (or locked). Of those maternal SAHs all but 2 or three matched on the Pouliot grandparent side. The other 2 or 3 were on the LeFevre grandparent side. An additional problem is linking those SAHs to gedmatch.

For Virginia, all her matches but one were maternal or locked. The one that was paternal was on the Kerivan side. No matches were found on the Butler side.

Following Virginia’s AncestryDNA Paternal SAH

Here is Virginia’s lone paternal SAH:

As can be seen above, this match is on Virginia’s Kerivan line.

the gedmatch connection: good and bad news

The good news is that Virginia matches someone at Gedmatch that seems to have a very similar name to the match at Ancestry.com. The bad news is that I have been unable to confirm that the two people are the same. However, I did think of an additional check. Lorraine did not match this AncestryDNA person. I opened up Gedmatch, found Virginia’s match. I ran the ‘One to Many’ utility for the match above who I will call Jeanette. On Jeanette’s ‘One to Many’ match list I saw Virginia and Richard but not Lorraine. That makes me feel 95% confident that I have the right person.

Jeanette’s matches with my butler in-laws

Here is the AncestryDNA match. It must be less than expected as the SAH shows third cousin once removed and the relationship predicted by the DNA is 5th to 8th cousin.

Jeanette and Virginia at Gedmatch:

Finally, Jeanette and Richard at Gedmatch:

Visual Phasing of Butler Chromosome 11

Based on the above results I would like to map Chromosome 11 for the Butlers using a method pioneered by Kathy Johnston. In the first step, I compare the three siblings, add approximate Chromosome locations for the crossovers and assign the crossovers to siblings:

I guessed at the 112 position as this was the border between a Fully Identical Region (FIR) shown in green and a Half Identical Region (HIR) shown in yellow. I can check this using the Full Resolution option at Gedmatch when comparing Lorraine to Virginia:

Each ^ is 1M, so the actual crossover from FIR to HIR is about 113. 4. It is close to the next crossover which is at 114.5M. For the assigned crossovers above, Virginia gets 6, Lorraine gets three and Richard gets one.

phasing strategy

While performing visual phasing, it is good to have a strategy. My strategy will be to include Richard in the first segment as he only has one crossover. By the way, one crossover means that Richard will have a complete unrecombined maternal or paternal Chromosome 11 from one of his grandparents. I could start where Richard and Virginia have their first FIR together, but instead I’ll choose the first place where Lorraine and Richard don’t match as there is more coverage in that lack of match stretch. The other thing to keep in mind is that the Rooney/Kerivan match is from 118 to 124M, so we will need to work our way to that side – likely by choosing a HIR in that area.

  • It looks like I could have chosen the first FIR and gotten the same results. A FIR (green) with two ‘no matches’ (red areas) over it like we have here is a good combination for mapping.
  • The Butlers have good coverage on this Chromosome.
  • I can already see that in the area of 118 to 124M Virginia and Lorraine have opposite grandparent matches. This shows why Virginia matched Jeanette and Lorraine did not.
Maternal matches

Before I continue mapping, I would like to see what this Butler DNA-tested trio have for maternal matches. They have two 1st cousins and two 2nd cousins that have tested. I entered all the cousins into Gedmatch, sorted them and took out everything except for how Richard, Lorraine and Virginia matched the cousins:

John is a nephew, so could match on the maternal or paternal side. Patricia and Joseph are maternal 1st cousins. However, that would not identify a specific maternal grandparent segment. The three siblings did not have appreciable matches with either of their 2nd cousins.

More Mapping

As the paternal Kerivan match is on the right hand side of this Chromosome, I’ll add a HIR between Lorraine and Richard. I did that by moving the blue for Richard to the right for the match with Virginia and for the part that didn’t match I put in green (opposite of red).

Once I set the HIR on the right, that meant that the blue area had to be Kerivan. That is the only place that Virginia and Richard have a matching color in the area of the Jeanette Kerivan/Rooney match (118-124). That leaves the purple to be Butler – the only other paternal grandparent.

This map leaves me with that ‘Swiss Cheese’ feeling. Before I scrap this map, let’s look at the 1st cousin matches to see if they can help fill in anything. They are the pink matches – signifying maternal.

Lorraine and Patricia match from 2 to 91. I take that to be the green match. I also assume that as they are first cousins, that their match length also represents the same grandparent. I’ll go out on a limb and say that I can extend the green to position 92.

This makes sense because Patricia starts matching Virginia at 77M. Before that she doesn’t match Virginia, so the maternal segment must be red for Virginia there. Actually, Lorraine’s green should extend further (to 114M) as she has no crossover until that point.

Here I moved Virginia’s red maternal segment to the right. Because the crossover was not on the maternal side it had to be on the paternal side. That gave her a crossover from Kerivan (blue) to Butler (purple) at 27M. The Chromosome is starting to fill in. Next, in the are from 39 to 77, Lorraine and Virginia don’t match. That means that Lorraine must have a blue Kerivan segment filling in at the top. Once I fill in Lorraine’s blue Kerivan segment, Lorraine and Virginia have a FIR (from 92-112M). That means I can fill in Virginia.

Now I’m almost done. I just have the last ever-difficult HIR to complete. Here my inclination is to check Patricia and Virginia at a lower threshold. If Patricia doesn’t match Virginia at the beginning of the Chromosome, then the red must carry through to the beginning for Virginia.

I was a bit surprised that the two cousins fit a match in the beginning of the Chromosome. I shouldn’t be surprised, because small matches are typically at either end of the Chromosome. That means the half match of the HIR is on the maternal side between Virginia and Lorraine. And the crossover is also on the maternal side.

How do I identify the maternal segments for chromosome 11?

I thought of a few things. One would be ICW which is an “in common with” feature that FTDNA uses. Or I could use the feature at Gedmatch which takes two people and finds people that are in common with them. I would be more satisfied with triangulated matches. The best way I know of to find these would be to start a surname study. Pouliot would be a good choice based on all the AncestryDNA Pouliot Shared Ancestor Hints that I mentioned at the beginning of the Blog.

 

 

 

Using Triangulation Groups to Map My Wife’s Chromosomes

I would like to update the Chromosome Map I have for my wife. The one I have now looks like this:

marie-cmap-old

This map is based on programming by Kitty Munson Cooper. It doesn’t look too bad. It only has 3 colors: 2 blue colors for her dad’s side and one color for her mom’s side. The red is based on the results from her 1/2 great Aunt. The blue is based on paternal grandmother cousins.

Here is Marie’s family of DNA tested relatives:

marie-relationship

From bottom left to right we have the following that have had their DNA tested:

  • Fred, Fred’s sister
  • Pat, Buddy
  • 1st cousin John
  • 2 Paternal Aunts
  • Dad and Mom
  • Aunt Esther
  • In addition I have results from a Dicks DNA study

The Rule of 1st Cousin, 2nd Cousin Combo

In my previous blog, looking at my mother’s side DNA, I came up with a rule. That rule said:

In a triangulation group between a person’s 1st cousin and a second cousin, the second cousin will be able to identify which grandparent the 1st cousins share.

I would like to apply this rule to my wife Marie as she has 1 first cousin and 2 aunts who have tested their DNA. These 3 are like cousins as the common ancestor of grandparent are the same. Marie also has 2 first cousins once removed tested. These would be similar to 2nd cousins as they both have great grandparents in common.

mariepaternalrelationships

Basically, right now if Marie compares herself to John or her 2 Aunts Lorraine and Virginia, she doesn’t know if the shared DNA is from Estelle LeFevre or Edward Butler. However, a triangulation group (TG) with Fred, Fred’s sister, Pat or Buddy and John, Lorraine or Virginia, will show that DNA to be from Estelle LeFevre. Further, not just the match in common to the TG will be from Estelle, but the entire segment represented by Marie’s match to John or her 2 Aunts will be from Estelle.

That’s My Theory, Let’s Try It Out

I have a boatload of combinations to try this theory out on. First, I’ll go with Fred, Fred’s sister, John, Marie and her 2 aunts. First I go to Marie’s one to many menu at Gedmatch and I choose Marie’s relatives I just mentioned. Then I choose the Matching Segment CSV. This downloads a file of all the matches between these 4 people, making it easy to find TGs. I could have used the Chromosome Browser but that only hints at TGs. However, I will use the Chromosome Browser to focus my search.

Chromosome 14 example

chr20ex

The browser show’s Marie’s matches to:

  1. Aunt Lorraine
  2. Cousin Pat
  3. Cousin Buddy
  4. Aunt Virginia

Here is how I have the Triangulation Group (TG) beween these 5 mapped out:

patbuddytg

This shows a Triangulation Group (TG) between Pat, Buddy, Aunt Lorraine. Aunt Virginia and Marie.

Now a few observations:

  • The chromosome browser view above is from Marie’s point of view
  • Marie’s matches with Pat or Buddy (#2 and #3 on the browser) represent the DNA they share from either Martin LeFevre or Emma Pouliot. It is also likely that one segment is shared from each of Marie’s great grandparents.
  • These segments are represented in the Kitty Munson Cooper Chromosome Map at the top of this Blog.
  • The long segment shared between Marie and her Aunt Lorraine is from one of Marie’s grandparents. Because Pat and Buddy also match Aunt Lorraine, we may say for sure that the segment Aunt Lorraine shares with Marie must have come from Aunt Lorraine’s mother Estelle LeFevre.
  • Marie’s DNA she got from her grandmother Estelle is shown below.

munsonmaprev

The previous map had 2 blue segments on Chromosome 20 representing either of Marie’s paternal grandmother’s parents. We didn’t know which. Now it shows the one large segment taking up all of Chromosome 20 from her known paternal grandmother. The green should say Estelle LeFevre b. 1904 – not Emma Pouliot b. 1894.

chromosome 15

On Chromosome 15 here are the same people, but in the following order: Aunts Lorraine and Virginia, Pat and Buddy.

mariechr15

kittymarie15

Interestingly, this time the program doesn’t overwrite the light blue. This is because the match for the light blue extends further than the match for the green. When I mouse-over the original map, it shows that the light blue match starts at about position 34 while the green match starts at about 35. Because of this, the entire blue match shows until it’s end and then the green match is shown.

This blue, light blue, green progression represents 3 generations of Marie’s ancestors on her paternal grandmother’s side.

Paternal Grandmother Results Using 1st Cousins, Once Removed

Here are the results of comparing Marie’s cousin and two aunts to her two 1st cousins, once removed. Here I correctly have Estelle LeFevre  b.1905 labeled for the green areas.

mariepatbuddychromomap

 

I didn’t bother doing the comparison for Marie’s X Chromosome. The reason is this. The X Chromosome that her dad gave to her, he got from his mom. That means that the green must extend for the whole X Chromosome. For that matter, the light blue would also be Marie’s paternal grandmother’s parents.

How to Identify Emma Pouliot?

That seemed to work well for Estelle, but is it possible to be go back one generation further and identify one of Marie’s great grandparents by DNA? I think so. Let’s take a look. This time, I don’t want to look at Marie’s 1st cousin John or her 2 aunts. The reason for that is that when I compare Marie to those 3 people, the common ancestor would be Marie’s grandparents. I want to compare Marie to her 2 first cousins, once removed to find her great grandparents – or in this case her paternal grandmother’s mother Emma Pouliot b. 1874 in the Province of Quebec.

tgchr1

We are using the same principle as before, but going one rung up the ladder. I will look for a Triangulation Group (TG) between Fred, Fred’s sister, Pat, Buddy and Marie. Once I find that TG, I will take the DNA match between Pat or Buddy and Marie and assign that DNA match to Emma Pouliot.

Chromosome 1

Let’s try this out on Chromosome 1:

pouliotlefevrechr1

  1. Fred’s sister (2C,1R)
  2. Fred (2C,1R)
  3. Pat (1C, 1R)
  4. Buddy (1C, 1R)

It looks like there should be an overlap between #1 and #3, but they have no match there in the middle of the Chromosome. However, on the right side, there is a match between #1 and #3. Using my plan, I’ll assign Emma Pouliot to the green segment. In this case, #1 and #2 representing the parents of Emma Pouliot are larger. It would stand to reason that these would belong to Emma also. However, for consistency, I will just map Emma to the green segment.

When I tried to map this using the Kitty Chromosome Mapper, it didn’t show up as Estelle had already filled up that slot.

Chromosome 2

chr2buddyfred

This time the two 1C’s, 1R are on the top and the smaller segments representing Marie’s two 2C’s, 1R are on the bottom. Is there a TG? I lowered the gedmatch thresholds, which I didn’t do for the first part of this Blog. Here is the match between the 1C, 1R and the 2C, 1R:

gedmatchchr23

They match on Chromosome 2, but a little below the 7 cM threshold. I’m not worried as I’ve read that in a TG a match is likely to be good down to 5 cM. That means that I will map Pat’s #1 green segment to Emma.

Unfortunately Estelle is taking up the space where Emma would be mapped on Kitty’s Mapper. This seems to be a trend.

Chromosome 13

I did the same exercise as above and mapped with no results. This time I took out the other references in the area of Chromosome 13 that were blocking Emma and got this:

emmachr13

Now we see Emma’s DNA in lighter green on Chromosome 13. The downside was that I took out some of Estelle’s DNA to the right of the light green area so Emma’s DNA match with Marie would show. Hey, I created this map; I can do what I want with it.

So that is what I found. My wife can claim hold to a lot of her grandmother’s DNA, but only 3 identified segments of her great grandmother’s DNA based on this procedure. Of course, one may say that every instance of finding the parents of Emma would be the same as Emma. Based on that idea, I’ll try another map.

emmaestelle-map

This map isn’t really any better, it is just meant to show that whether you have the parents or the child, it fills up the same area on the map. Note I have the same problem here where Estelle fills up the older Emma DNA on Chromosomes 1, 2, and 13.

Marie’s Dicks DNA

The idea for this section should be more straightforward. I have been involved with a Newfoundland Dicks DNA project. There are many people who have tested their DNA and found through triangulation to be likely related to the Newfoundland Dicks family. For example, here is a list of the Dicks Triangulation Groups (TGs):

Dicks TG Summary

These include the Dicks TGs except for the most recent few. Joan is near the middle of the chart. She is my wife’s mother. All I have to do is see if Marie is in any of the same TGs that her mother is in. Then I can take the match with the other 2 from the TG and assign that DNA to the appropriate Dicks ancestors.

Here is what was added (in yellow):

mariechromomap

All that was added was a probable Dicks segment on Chromosome 2. There were other Dicks segments but they were “behind” Upshall matches. That means that they are the ancestor of Frederick Upshall. The reason that the Chromosome 2 match stood out was that it was a match with Joan (Marie’s mom) and not with Marie’s great Aunt Esther (represented in red above).

Check Your Work

Fortunately, M MacNeill [prairielad_genealogy@hotmail.com] has looked at my wife’s family’s Chromosome 1. He has looked at the raw DNA which is more under the hood than what I am doing. Here is a small portion of his work. He phased Marie’s father and 2 aunts and then went back and put that information into Marie’s DNA.

macneillchr1marie

The interesting thing about MacNeill’s map is that it includes the DNA for Marie’s 4 paternal great grandparents. The cross-hatched area is where it was not possible to determine the crossover point. At any rate, MacNeill points out some errors in my Chromosome mapping for Marie. He has sections of salmon or pink indicating Richard’s paternal grandparents where I have Marie mapped to Richard’s maternal side.

This is when I go back to my spreadsheet for the details:

mariechr1notg

In the first part of Chromosome 1, it is clear that Marie does not match Pat, Buddy, Fred, or Fred’s sister, so I cannot call that a TG or a Paternal grandmother match for Marie. My original rule said that Marie had to be in a TG for my segment extending plan to work.

Here is where I removed 2 paternal grandmother segments on Chromosome 1:

mariechr1rev

However, on the right of Chromosome 1,  MacNeill has more paternal grandfather DNA mapped where I again have paternal grandmother. In my defense, this was an area where, according to MacNeill, Fred and Fred’s sister appear to match on both the paternal grandmother and grandfather side. I couldn’t have known that as I only had information for the paternal grandmother side.

One other point on Emma pouliot

emmaphoto

Above, I had mapped Emma Pouliot to Marie on Chromosome 1:

emmamappedsegments

Here is a larger view of what MacNeill had for Marie’s family’s Chromosome 1:

richard-chr1

The legend on the top line is difficult to read, but Pouliot is the darker red. More specifically, that would be Emma Pouliot. Marie is on the bottom line. The last vertical white line in Marie’s dark red area represents position 198. As I had mapped Emma from 197 to 207, that would put her in the end of the dark red area of Richard’s Pouliot maternal grandmother, before Marie’s DNA switches to the DNA she got from her dad’s paternal side in the salmon color. So at least my work agrees with MacNeill in this little area.

Summary and Conclusion

  • Most of the additional segments came by phasing the unknown grandparent using the 1st cousins’, once removed shared DNA
  • This method could work well along with the visual chromosome mapping that Kathy Johnston developed.
  • There is a fine distinction with mapping the DNA of one’s known grandparent and mapping the DNA of the parents of that known grandparent. When mapping to the parents, the individual segments could be from either parent. When mapping to the known grandparent, that larger segment could contain compound segments of the parents. It is a subtle distinction, but one that should be maintained in my opinion for future research.
  • Using the Kitty Mapping tool is fun and instructive as to how DNA works. It can be manipulated to show what one would like to be shown. For example, when I wanted to highlight the Emma Pouliot segment, I was able to do that.
  • Even with no paternal and maternal grandfather DNA matches for Marie, I have been able to fill out her Chromosome map quite a bit – mostly on her paternal grandmother side.

Uncle Naffy, DNA, and the Butler Brick Wall

This blog will be a departure from my usual Frazer DNA Blogs. This is about my father in law’s Butler line. I plan to add some genealogy also. I have been working on the Butler line since about 18 B.D. That is 18 years before I got involved with DNA. This line has been a mystery. As far as we know, the first Butler of the family to come to the US was Edward Butler.

What Did I Know About Edward Butler?

edwardh

Here is a photo, believed to be Edward himself. I’m not familiar with the type of clothes he is wearing or when this may have been taken. My wife’s Aunt had done some research on the Butlers, so that was helpful. This research was done back in the day before computers. According to a Death Certificate Aunt Lorraine had from 1986, Edward Butler died 1915 and was aged 80. His parents were Michael Butler and Margaret Croke. They were all said to have been born in Kilkenny, Ireland. His wife was Mary E. Crowley. She died in 1905 at age 51. She was born in St. John, New Brunswick. Her father was Florence Crowley and her mom was Ellen Donavan. I had never heard of Florence as a man’s name before. Based on the death certificates, Edward would’ve been born about 1835 and Mary about 1854.

The Chicago Connection

This family had at least 2 sons: George and Edward Henry Butler. Both of these sons moved to Massachusetts with the parents and were said to have been born in Chicago. However, I could not find any record of the family in Chicago. Perhaps some will show up eventually.

A Possible Cincinnati Connection?

I had found some census information for families that looked similar to the family I was looking for, but something was always a bit off. The best census I could find was in Cincinnati. Here is the 1860 Census for the 17 Ward of Cincinnati taken on June 6th.

Cincinnati 1860

Here we have a young Butler family. The husband and wife were 25 and 23. The family’s net worth appeared to be $20 and the father was a laborer who couldn’t read or write. What I especially liked was the the father was born in Ireland and the wife was born in New Brunswick. New Brunswick was pretty specific. The enumerator could’ve written Canada but didn’t. I knew from Mary Butler’s death certificate that she was from St. John, New Brunswick. However, there were many problems. I had never heard of the family living in Cincinnati. I had never heard of the family having daughters. From this census Mary would’ve been born around 1837. Based on her death certificate, she should’ve been born around 1854. So I considered what I had found, but kept other options open.

Here is the same family in 1870 in the 3rd Ward of Cincinnati (taken from the FamilySearch website).

Cincinnati 1870

Now Mary and Julia are said to be born in Mass. Ellen is not in the house. Edward is said to be a citizen.

The Mellie Connection

After his wife, Mary (Crowley) Butler, died in 1905, Edward went to live with the Mellies on Clinton Street in Newton. Here is the 1910 Census.

1910 Census Mellie

Mary was actually Mary Butler. Her parents were James Butler and Mary and she was born in County Kilkenny. She married William Mellie in 1898 in West Newton. That could mean that James Butler was Edward Butler’s brother and seems to confirm the Kilkenny connection for the Butlers. Although this gave me more Butler family and a possible reason the family moved from Chicago to Boston, it didn’t answer many other questions. I was determined to find out more about Edward Butler, but it seemed like he was just as determined to keep his family history hidden.

The Crowley Family

At this point, I gave up on the Butlers and decided to focus on the Crowley family. They had been in North America apparently longer than the Butler family. Very often the female side keeps the family connections and history more than the male side.  Turns out the male name of Florence was not as unusual as I had originally thought. Also I found out that many of the Crowleys from Mary’s generation made their way to Boston. As I read about their lives, it is as if I was  seeing their lives in fast motion. This is because often I find their births, marriages and deaths in a short period of time. Sometimes I see their young children dieing. I see their lives in the Census in 10 year snapshots. I picture where they may have lived in Boston. Sometimes family invited other families to live with them in crowded conditions. One Crowley family member spent quite a bit of time at the Danvers hospital and apparently suffered from mental illness. I’m sure this put a strain on the family.

The DNA Phase

Late in 2014, I sent a Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) kit down to Florida for my father in law to take. This particular test is called the Family Finder. It actually tests your chromosomes and shows resulting matches to other people. The catch is that you don’t know how you are related to these other people. It could be on any branch of your ancestors and then any branch coming down in any direction. Many of those directions you may not even know about. Some of my father in law’s cousins had tested already which I was to find out. These were on his mother’s French Canadian side and not the father’s Butler side. If you are related to one French Canadian, you are related to many. So many of these matches crowded out the Butler matches which seemed few and far between.

I uploaded my father in law’s results to gedmatch.com. This is a place where you can find other matches from other testing companies. I took the results and put them in a spreadsheet. I grouped these by segments of the 22 Chromosomes. Further I grouped these matching segments into Triangulation Groups. These are groups where matches match each other. When this happens there is most likely a common set of ancestors in the group. Then I had to update the results when new matches came in.

Uncle Naffy

On April 14, 2015, I emailed “unclenaffy” (his email name). I noticed a few days previously he had a large match to Richard, my father in law at FTDNA. I included Richard’s ancestry chart. Uncle Naffy got back to me right away, “I dont have a family tree yet but i can tell you that Crowleys are related to me. I am living in Saint John where they had lived and still do live. My Aunt Mary Lou Reid knows the family connections so ill tell you later more.…” Well this had me interested. Then on April 16 Uncle Naffy wrote, “I have more news for you. I have chatted with my aunt mary lou reid and she has info on how i might be related to Butler. My GGgrandmother was a Butler from Cincinnati in 1870s and moved to New Brunswick to live with family” This was even more interesting as I never recalled mentioning Cincinnati to Uncle Naffy. Uncle Naffy further told me that his grandmother’s father was Thomas Joseph Murphy. He married a Mary A Butler. She was the one that moved from Cincinnati to live with family. Uncle Naffy filled me in further, “Rumour has it that when they were due to marry at a church in saint john, well it was during the Great Saint John fire of 1877 and the church burnt down .” I was able to find that marriage in the French Canadian Druin records. I wrote back:

Murphy Butler Marriage St. John

So that was enough to break down one of the Butler brick walls. Uncle Naffy had mentioned St. John, Cincinnati, Crowley and Butler. I also had the name of a Church in St. John where at least some Irish married. I no longer felt like I was searching for a needle in a haystack. Now it was more like looking for a pitchfork.

Finally this Summer, I made it up to the New England Historical and Genealogical Society (NEHGS) Library in Boston to look up marriages. There, I went winding through microfilm. Fortunately, there was an index on the film. Once I figured it out, I found an entry for Butler/Crowley. That was encouraging. Then I found the entry which, although it was legible as to quality, contained some of the worst 19th century handwriting I had ever seen. I took a photo of it on my phone. Here it is.

butler crowley marriage st john

It’s a good thing there was an index. In case you can’t decipher it, I gather that Edward Butler and Mary Crowley were both from St. John and got married May 1, 1855. It appears that someone named Quinn performed the ceremony. Edward Butler gave his mark – remember he couldn’t read or write. There were 2 witnesses: a Walter (someone) and Elizabeth Scott.

So DNA pushed our written record knowledge back 50 years from when Mary Crowley Butler died in 1905. She was considerably older than her stated 51 years when she died. This had thrown me off considerably also.

What I’ve Learned

  • Don’t trust death records. I knew this before but had to relearn it.
  • St. John had a large Irish immigrant population. I didn’t know this before.
  • The Butler/Crowley wedding did in fact take place in St. John. It is likely that Edward Butler came to shore here or nearby.
  • The Butler family was quite mobile moving from St. John, to Cincinnati. Then apparently to the Chicago area and finally to the Boston area.
  • DNA does not solve the problems directly but gives good clues and confidence for areas to look. This is especially true if DNA matches help out a bit and give family information. (Thanks Uncle Naffy.)