Butler Visual Phasing: Part 4

In my previous Blog, I worked on updating the visual phasing for my late father-in-law and his two sisters. While doing this, I updated their DNA Painter Maps. I made an interesting discovery based on an old Cincinnati Butler descendant match that I had found back in 2015. The old spreadsheet that I had on Richard was helpful, so I updated that for him and one of his sisters. I will next update Virginia’s spreadsheet from Gedmatch.

Chromosome 17

My note says that this is done but  the paternal side needs to be idendified:

On Chromosome 17, I was trying to figure out what DNA my wife inherited from her father based on the Chromosome Mapping.

The key to Chromosome 17 is finding paternal matches. Not unlike the key to all the chromosomes. I’ll run Virginia against Jack, who is a top Kerivan match. I’ll look for the matches in common at Gedmatch and then run a Matching Segment Search. I come up with one match on Chromosome 17:

It looks like Virginia’s paternal crossover is around 6. That would mean that paternal GP1 would be Kerivan. I see that Richard has a match with Jane also:

I don’t see a DNA match between Jane and Lorraine.

I’m ready to declare victory over Chromosome 17 and move on to the next battle.

Chromosome 18

Assuming my previous work was correct, I first need to identify the easier maternal side:

Next, I’ll add DNA Painter information:

This works well, except for Richard’s purple match with Fortin/Tremblay. Based on my visual phasing, there should be no crossovers in that purple area. My guess is that orange is LeFevre and that the purple match that Richard has with Gerry is not right.

Here is Gerry’s tree at MyHeritage:

MyHeritage was not able to figure out our common ancestor. I’m not sure how I came up with what I did. I would say now that it is not right or that there is a closer common ancestor. I decided to delete Gerry from Richard’s map until I can figure out how he belongs.

The remaining question is the location of Virgina’s maternal crossover. That can be found at the Gedmatch full resolution image of the match between Richard and Virginia:


That happens here at about 42.5. That fits in with Virginia’s Lefevre match on Chromosome 18:

Next, I need to find a paternal match to identify the paternal side of Chromosome 18.

It appears that the salmon colored paternal side is predominately all Kerivan or all Butler. An in common match between Jack (who represents Kerivan) and Virginia didn’t show any matches on Chromosome 18. That means that I should run an in-common match for one of the Butler matches. Lorraine has a pretty good match with Kim at Gedmatch:

I haven’t connected these two families by genealogy but they are connected by DNA and many circumstantial incidences. I had no luck finding Chromosome 18 matches with this comparison either.

Chromosome 19

I’ll add the DNA Painter map to the bottom of the work I had done previously:

It looks like Lorraine should have a maternal crossover where her match ends, but Richard’s Lefevre green is actually two matches:

The problem is that I have not mapped Jane to Lorraine’s map. Mapping Jane onto Virginia’s map helps show Virginia’s Pouliot segment between the two Lefevre segments:

It looks like there should be a crossover for Lorraine on the right side of her match with Jane. However, it appears that the match between Jane and Richard was larger previously. Now it is in line with the matches between Lorraine and Virginia:

I guess the algorhythm changed at Gedmatch. I don’t feel like changing Richard’s results right now.

A Paternal Match for Chromosome 19?

Using my previous in-common analyses, I have this Kerivan-type match for Lorraine:

I have this Butler-type match – also for Lorraine:

Unfortunately, that does not fit in with the way I have Lorraine mapped, unless I change the visual phasing. Due to uncertainties, I’ll leave Chromosome 19 for now.

Chromosome 20

Here is what I had done previously for Chromosome 20:

I’ll convert this to Excel from Powerpoint. I also want to look at the DNA Painter maps for these three siblings. Here is Lorraine:

She has LeFevre DNA at the beginning and Kerivan DNA at the right end of Chromosome 20. Lorraine’s matches appear to define Paternal GP1 as Kerivan.

Virginia shows Pouliot up to position 60:

Here is what Richard has:

When I re-do this Chromosome, I’ll start from the righ hand side as the left-hand first crossover is not as important. I did this but got the same results:

However, now I know the paternal side. At some time, I need to look at Virginia’s match list to see where her matches are falling out after position 60.

Chromosome 21

Here is what I had done previously in Powerpoint:

I’ll start by looking at the three DNA Painter maps. Only Richard has one match so far. That is for Pouliot between 10 and 22:

When I bring this into Excel, I need to see the left-hand side:

With the left side completed, I see the only color that Richard has uniquely there is blue, so that has to be Pouliot. That defines the maternal side of the three siblings’ Chromosome 21 and defines the maternal grandparents. However, it leaves a gap in Lorraine’s Chromosome 21.

Chromosome 22

Here is the work I did previously:

All l need to do is identify the two paternal grandparents. I checked the three DNA Painter maps and saw no paternal matches that would help me.

Summary and Conclusions

My list of completed chromosomes is getting larger:

I now have only 8 chromosomes that are not completed. If I do some more work on these, I may be able to complete one or two more.

  • It was helpful referring to the DNA Painter maps for these three siblings.
  • Looking at in common matches was helpful at Gedmatch
  • I will likely continue working on these unfinished chromosomes and follow up on some of the paternal in common DNA matches – especially on the Butler side.

Visual Phasing My Father-in-law’s Butler Side: Part 3

Here is where I am with visual phasing of my father-in-law’s Butler side:

I started about four or five years ago and recently have been updating their visual phasing. Visual Phasing maps out in what way three siblings got their DNA from their four grandparents.

I’ll look at the chromosomes that I haven’t completed and see if I can complete or improve on any of them.

Chromosome 1

I’ll update this to Excel and start over. The crossovers seem straightforward until we get to the right end. Then there are three in a row:

Here is my attempt at visual phasing:

When there are two crossovers in a row for the same person, it means that there is usually a Half Identical Region (HIR) which goes unidentified.

If I add some more Pouliot to Virginia’s DNAPainter map, it will help. I will also add more LeFevre:

This brings Virginia up to 18% painted.

Next, I’ll add the LeFevre matches to Lorraine’s map:

This doesn’t add any new LeFevre information for Lorraine, but may be helpful for other chromosomes. Next, I put the DNAPainter maps below the Visual Phasing Chart. This will tell if the theoretical and actual matches agree:

The scales may not match here. For Lorraine, it is clear that there is a crossover from LeFevre (blues) to Pouliot at 205:


I checked Richard vs. Virginia and that crossover is actually 204, not 202.

Virginia has a crossover from Pouliot to LeFevre at the same location:

That likely means that Richard does not have a crossover at 204. That is good to know.

Now Chromosome 1 is starting to come into it’s own. I see that Richard has a crossover here:

At 217, the crossover goes from Pouliot to LeFevre. I also see that Richard matches a LeFevre here:

I now have Richard and Virginia’s maternal sides finished and identified:

I think that this is as far as I can get, unless I find more matches between 0 and 70:

Chromosome 5

I had that this Chromosome was not started.

I recopied these comparisons from Gedmatch as he previous ones didn’t seem right. This is what I get without looking at Half Identical Regions (HIRs):

When I add my one allowed HIR, I get this:

Next I added in matches from DNAPainter:

Virginia has a large match that Lorraine and Richard do not have. This match is from 75 to 118. Michelle represents LeFevre, so green must represent Lefevre. Dark blue on Lorraines bar is also Lefevre, so that would support salmon being Lefevre.  Then there are the three Michelle matches near the beginning of Chromosome 5.

  • Lorraine: 18-31
  • Virginia: 28-34
  • Richard: 18-34

This suggests that Lorrain has Lefevre to Pouliot crossover at 31 and that Virginia has a Pouliot to Lefevre crossover at 28. That is good, but it means that I have to adjust my crossovers. Instead of two Richard crossovers, there is a Virginia crossover and then a Lorraine crossover. I think the problem is that I didn’t add enough detail to the comparisons. For that, I will need to lower the match level to 3 cM:

This shows another segment from 35 to 38. I may have to come back to this Chromosome as it seems quite complicated – especially in the region around the 30’s.

Chromosome 8

Here is the work I had done in 2016:

I redid Chromosome 8 in Excel:

This time I saw an R and L crossover where I saw a V crossover previously on the right side of the Chromosome. This is what I get this time:

The small blue segment on Lorraine’s top bar looks ridiculous, so I will take that out. Next, I add information from DNAPainter. However, these matches are Lefevre only:

This tells me that Lefevre is salmon and Pouliot is green.  This completes the mapping for Lorraine and Richard, but it does not identify and paternal segments. The arrows point out where the crossovers were for Richard and Lorraine, that I had previously identified as a Virgininia crossover:

It may look like Virginia should have a maternal crossover, but that is only because I did not map one of her segments. I just did that and here is here extra segment:

Joseph Methot was the father-in-law of Edmund LeFevre, so on the LeFevre side.

Chromosome 13

Here is what I had done with Chromosome 13 in 2017:

An identifying match for Virginia would help between 39 and 59.


It turns out that Virginia’s match with Philip that I just added is helpful. The match was between 40 and 60:

It appears that there was a match to a Rooney descendant which is on the Kerivan side. That helped identify the maternal side of Chromosome 13. While I’m at it, I’ll add Philip to Richard’s DNA Painter Map:

Richard’s match with Philip starts at 36, so it defines Virginia’s crossover from Pouliot to Lefevre at 39 or 40.

Chromosome 16

I had origingally worked on this Chromosome in Word. I redid the work in Excel and came up with the same basic results:

Next, I look at DNA Painter. Here is what I have for Richard:

He shows Pouliot at the start and near the end. then in the middle, there is some really old Lefevre DNA going back to 1715. This is from a match from Christine, that I found at Gedmatch. She had uploaded from Ancestry, but I can’t find her at Ancestry right now. However, I assume that I had the common ancestors correct. I see that Richard also has a match to Doris at MyHeritage. This common ancestor is on the Pouliot side:

This should define a Pouliot to Lefevre crossover at about 50. The problem is that I haven’t identified a crossover for Richard or any crossover at the 50 location on Chromosome 16.

One thing that I do know is that all three Butler siblings match on the Pouliot side at the beginning of the Chromosome:


Virginia and Lorraine do not match on the Pouliot side near the end of the Chromosome, so I came up with the above map. I think that French Canadian intermarriage may have messed with the middle of the Chromosome, so I may have to change this at some point.

Looking for Paternal Matches

I went to Gedmatch to download 1,000 of Richard’s newest matches. Most of these should be from Ancestry. As Richard tested at FTDNA, I would be better off downloading VIrginia and Lorraine’s results. They tested at Ancestry. However, I did find something interesting on Richard’s old spreadsheet:

Here is a match James who I have on Richard’s maternal side. My note says he has Cincinnati roots. Here is  the maternal side of his tree at FTDNA:

The least documented side is Branch where I think the connection is. Alma’s mother was Rebecca Butler based on Alma’s marriage record:

Here is Rebecca in the 1870 Ward 17 Cincinnati Census:

My working theory is that my wife’s Butlers are related to these Butlers. That helps me solve Chromosme 16:

Here is how Richard and James match:

This is how I have connected the two trees, but I don’t have the genealogy to do it at the top level.

Lorraine Matches James Also

Lorraine matches James here on Chromosomes 4 and 16:

Virginia  matches James on Chromosome 4 only.

Summary and Conclusions

  • 9 out of the Butler sibling’s chromosomes are believed to be completed
  • While looking for paternal matches for Visual Phasing, I found one that I had discovered in 2015. It turns out that this match was a descendant of the Cincinnati Butlers who are related to my wife’s Butlers by DNA.
  • DNA Painter has been helpful in identifying matches also and I have been adding to these three Butler siblings’ maps
  • The only cousins on the Butler grandparent side used to check the visual phasing are those that have not been proved by genealogy, but are certainly cousins by DNA.
  • I will continue on with Chromosomes 17 through 22 in a subsequent Blog




Updating the Visual Phasing of My Father-in-law’s Butlers: Part 2

In my previous Blog, I was successful in updating the visual phasing for the four grandparents of my father-in-law. I was able to complete several of the 23 chromosomes. This was my previous summary:

Chromosome 11

It appaears that I should be able to find some maternal matches to complete Chromosome 11. This is what I had come up with in 2016:

Here is what I have for Richard on his Chromosome 11 in DNAPainter:

I found this match for my wife from a previous Blog:

This indicates that Kbou would be on the Pouliot side for my father-in-law. From the key for Richard’s DNAPainter map, it appeared that Gagne/Girard was improperly put in a group with LeFevres, so I will move that down:

That means that Richard’s crossover at position 117 is his change from Pouliot to LeFevre:

Here is the finished Chromosome 11:

Kbou is also an X Chromosome match.

Marie Girard was my father-in-law’s mother’s mother’s mother’s mother’s mother’s mother. If Richard or one of his sisters were to have the mitochondrial DNA test, that would pass to the mother’s only side also.

Chromosome 17

This was some of my early work in Visual Phasing as it is in Word:

As paternal matches are very scarce, it is difficult to identify whether blue or purple is Butler or Kerivan.

Chromosome 22

Unfortunately, I could find no paternal matches on Chromosome 22.

Chromosome 5

The crossovers were complicated in this Chromosome which is perhaps why I did not pursue this Chromosome previously:

I’ll give this a shot now. I’ll start in the middle:

Things seem clearer there. The confusing par is around 30 to 40. I’ll work on solving the right side and hope for good matches on the left side. Here is a partial solution:

Lorraine and Alan have a small match on Chromosome 5:

Lorraine has a better match with Yvonne:

This would be a good match to compare with Richard and Virginia. Here is Richard’s match with Yvonne:

I don’t see a match for Virginia.

Unfortunately, Richard and Lorraine have a Fully Identical Region from 77 to 116:

That means that this hint does not help.

Back to Alan

Virginia and Richard show no match with Alan on Chromosome 5. If Lorraine’s match is valid, I show this:

That match identifies the top bar as maternal and the bottom as paternal. That would also meanj that Lorraine and Richard would have LeFevre DNA between 77 and 116 which corroborates with the Yvonne match. I’ll leave Chromosome like this for now:

Chromosome 1

I worked on this Chromosome in 2016:

On Richard’s DNAPainter map, he has this second green match with KK:

Thjat match represents LeFevre which I have a purple:

Chromosome 2

This Chromosome is interesting as it has some Butler DNA from an unidentified Butler ancestor. I will re-do this Chromosome in Excel. Richard’s DNAPainter map shows that he has Kerivan DNA on the right side of his paternal copy of Chromosome 2:

Light blue represents Kerivan and dark blue is unknown Butler DNA.

It would be helpful to ‘paint’ Lorraine’s paternal Chromosome 2 as well as Virginia’s.

Here is Lorraine:

As a bonus, Lorraine’s match with Kim shows a bonusk segment of unknown Butler in Chromosome 4.

I don’t have anything mapped for Virginia yet. I’m not showing a match between Virginia and Kim. Here is Virginia’s matches with Jack who has Kerivan ancestry:

This mapping is not necessary, but it is helpful to see where Virginia’s Kerivan matches are. At the right side of Chromosome 2, I also see the possibility of a double crossover:

Instead of two Virginia crossovers, the last Virginia may be a Richard and Lorraine crossover. Here is what I get for the right side of Chromosome 2:

Next, I need some more maternal side for Lorraine. I unlocked something at FTDNA so I could get a good match. This is with Michelle – on Lorraine’s LeFevre side:

Next I unlock Virginia’s FTNDA results. Here is how she matches Michelle:

I have not been consistent with the colors between siblings. From just cousin matches, the Chromosome 2 Map looks like this:

I can expand some of the segments like this:

That leaves the left side of the chromosome undone. I can pretend I don’t know the results for the right side, solve the left side and then add in the right side.

The bottom three pairs of bars were visually phased.

Michelle’s DNA Matches with Richard, Lorraine and Virginia

I am hoping that key to solving Chromosome 2 lies in Michelle. Michelle matches:

  • Lorraine 31-69
  • Virginia 37-115
  • Richard 38-75

The key appears to be in the beginning of the matches. My guess is that Michelle who represents LeFevre is the salmon color:

That also means that the map would be the same except that the colors for LeFevre and Pouliot are switched. Virginia will still have the blue Kerivan on her paternal side. Green will be Butler and orange will be Pouliot.

And the answer is:

The key to solving this Chromosome:

  • Matches with Michelle and Jack
  • Solving the left side as if I didn’t know about the other DNA matches and then adding them in.
  • A double crossover for Richard and Lorraine at position 227.6.

The Importance of Chromosome 2 for Butler Genealogy

The green Butler segments of Chromosome 2 are where Richard and Lorraine match Kim and Nathan. This is my best guess of how the Butler families tie together:

Kim and Nathan descend from George Butler who lived in Cincinnati . My wife’s 2nd great-grandfather Edward Butler also lived in Cincinnati for a while – not too far from George Butler. Here is how Nathan and Kim match each other:

This is the DNA that Kim and Nathan share that came down from George Butler who was born in 1826 in Ireland.

Summary and Conclusions

  • 12 of the chromosomes have been completed.
  • It takes time to get matches to confirm and improve the work
  • As Butler matches are scarce, it would be better to try to get some Butler matches from AncestryDNA to upload to Gedmatch, MyHeritage or FTDNA.
  • It takes a long time to figure out who matches you on a specific chromosome. If you have a profile on DNAPainter, that makes the job easier.



Updating My Wife’s Father’s Side Butler Visual Phasing

Several years ago, I worked on the visual phasing of my wife’s paternal side. I administer the DNA for my wife’s father and two aunts. That gives me enough information to do visual phasing. I downloaded the Stephen Fox spreadsheet, but this does not work well now. That means that I can just update my old excel individual Chromosome maps.

New Butler Matches

Part of the problem I had with visual phasing of the Butler family is that there were a lot of matches on their maternal French Canadian side, but not as many matches on their Irish side. In there past several years, there should be new matches that could help in identifying the paternal grandparents.

Chromosome 2

This is what I had for Chromosome 2 – last worked on in 2018:

Here Gaby is not very helpful as she is a first cousin. Here is another match on Chromosome 2:

Lorraine and John are 2nd cousins, once removed on the Kerivan side. Here is how John and Lorraine match:

John will be even more helpful on Chromosomes 7, 15 and 20.

The position of 227M is significant as it occurs at a crossover. Here is John’s match with Virginia:

Here is John and Richard:

This shows that my former Chromosome 2 map was wrong on the right. All the DNA on the right should be Kerivan and not Butler. I’m a bit out of practice with these, so I’ll move on to Chromosome 7 which I hope will be easier.

Chromosome 7

Here is what I had for Chromosome 7 back in 2017:

It looks like I was having trouble with this one also as I have two different tries. I can now see by Richard’s match with John, that his crossover at 83 is on the paternal side:

Following John’s matches, it appears that this could be the answer:

This is a case where one good match can map both the paternal and maternal sides of a whole Chromosome. While that is good, you can see that there is quite a bit of Butler [green] DNA missing between these three siblings. It would be a good idea to verify the maternal side. I checked MyHeritage and Fred matches Virginia there on Chromosome 7 where I show Fred’s sister matching between about position 70 and 80. That confirms my earlier work. It is satisfying to have this Chromosome finished.

Summary of Butler Chromosomes

It would make sense to summarize the condition of the Butler 23 chromosomes in a spreadsheet.

It took a while to go through all my files. This shows that six out of 23 chromosomes are phased by grandparent. At this point, I will assume that the green highlighted chromosomes are correct. Next I can leither look at the yellow highlighted chromosomes or revisit the Butler matches with John on the Kerivan side.

Chromosome 4

This Chromosome was analyzed in PowerPoint which is not ideal:

These larger chromosomes can have a lot of crossovers. Fortunately, we now have John’s DNA match at Gedmatch. From above, I see:

  • John doesn’t match Lorraine
  • John matches Virginia in three places
  • John matches Richard in one place near the right end of Chromosome 4 (at 183 to 185)

From this it seems obvious that Butler is green and Kerivan is blue on the map above. This is how the paternal side comes out:

Richard’s match to John ends at 185, so that describes his last paternal crossover at 185. VIrginia’s match to John is from 183 to 189. The question then is why doesn’t Lorraine match John on the right side of the Chromosome if she shows blue Kerivan there? I can show more detail on the match between Lorraine and John:

I’m really showing nothing – especially on the right hand side. That means that Lorraine should be all Butler maternally and other adjustments have to be made. Here is my correction for the right side of Chromosome 4 which appears to be closer to the truth:

I moved Richard’s crossover to 185. I ignored the two crossovers for Lorraine.

Back to Chromosome 2

I will stay with the John matches and see if I am closer to tackling Chromosome 2. Here I added John’s DNA matches at the bottom:

Because Virginia matches John sooner than Richard and Lorraine do on the right, this could indicate multiple crossovers. I’ll take out the last Virginia crossover and add in two for Richard and Lorraine.

I’m not sure how I would have figured out that there was a double crossover at 227.5 were it not for the match the Bulter family has with John.

Chromosome 6

Here John matches only Virginia:

That small match identifies green as Kerivan:

However, it raises the question as to why Lorraine does not match John between positions 103 and 108. When I lower thre threshold, I see that she does:

That tells me that this was a valid match between Lorraine and John. It just got clipped on both ends. This also confirms Lorraine’s paternal crossover at about 107.5.

John’s DNA Match and Chromosome 8

John matches Virginia only on Chromosome 8:

Here is what I had done previously on Chromosome 8:

John’s match with Virginia is to the far right of Chromosome 8. That means that blue is Kerivan and Green is Butler.

John’s match with Virginia did not define any new crossovers but it did make the work that I did previously more useful. For example, if Richard comes across a paternal match on the right side of Chromosome 8 at 75 or higher, it will be on the Butler side.

Chromosome 9

John matches Virginia and Richard (but not Lorraine) on the same area:

I had already ‘solved’ Chromosome 9 previously, but let’s see if John’s two matches fit in:

I see already that I had a labeling error as I have Butler in the orange and green segments. Also I have Lorraine and Virginia as the same paternal color which is wrong. Problems. Here is the link to the Blog where I made the mistakes. This was how I had Chromosome 9 before I went wrong:

It seems like this is a better rendering of Chromosome 9:

I changed Virginia’s first crossover to her  maternal side. This is because she matches John who has Kerivan ancestry at position 8-14. I notice again, if I mapped this right, that the Butler DNA is skimpy. If there is a big Butler match waiting to be found in the middle of Chromosome 9, it will not be found by these three siblings.

Chromosome 10

Virginia and John match on Chromosome 10:

Right now I have no names on Chromosome 10:

I would need more matches to figure out if that is maternal or paternal.

At MyHeritage:

Here is the DNA match:

Lorraine’s match to Philip looks the same:

Philip and Richard do not match on Chromosome 10:

Unfortunately, even that does not help. Thinking a bit more, the first match between John and Virginia does help:

That match with John representing Kerivan must be on the salmon color. That is because no one else matches Virginia’s salmon color in that area of the match. If the match was in the green, then Lorraine would also have to match John there. This appears to be the answer:

From looking at first cousin matches previously, I seem to have figured out the maternal and paternal sides of this Chromosome.

Chromosome 12

John matches Virginia and Richard here:

I had already figured out Chromosome 12:

The match with John supports the mapping on the right as Lorraine shows Butler in yellow.

Chromosome 15

Just two chromosomes to go. John matches Lorraine here:

Some of my early visual phasing was done in Word:

Virginia matches known 2nd cousin Fred at MyHeritage:

Here is the DNA match:

Here is Lorraine and Fred:

This suggests a maternal crossover for Virginia at about position 28

I’m going to try to start Chromosome 15 again. This time in Excel:

I put in who owns the crossovers and most of the positiongs. I started at the right where Lorraine and Richard have no matches, so opposite colors. I then moved Lorraine’s colors to her next crossover. Lorraine and Virginia have a Fully Identical Region (FIR) in green so I added that in. Next, I’ll do a random half identical region between Lorraine and Virginia and see where that goes.

That looks better. It is all done except for the left side. I now see that John’s match with Lorraine must be on the salmon color. That is because John matches only Lorraine and not Virginia nor Richard. That means that salmon represents the Kerivan quarter and blue the Butler quarter.

Now I just need to look at the two Pouliot matches from MyHeritage. This should be the finished Chromosome 15 for Richard, Lorraine and Virginia:

That match between Fred, Lorraine and Virginia helped define two maternal crossovers. One was at 28 and one at 33. These were a little off from where I drew the original crossover lines at 27 and 31. On this Chromosome, some Pouliot DNA was lost between the three siblings from 60 to 95. I put Richard’s crossover at35 on his paternal side as he should have had a match with Fred (Pouliot side) if his crossover was on the maternal side.

Chromosome 20

Chromosome 20 looks fairly simple. I used a first cousin match somehow to come up with the map. Lorraine and Richard have this match with John (Kerivan side):

The way I mapped it, Virginia and Richard have the same Paternal grandparent. That means that I made a mistake or that the match is wrong. The one place I can go to for matches by Chromosome is DNAPainter. I have painte some of Richard’s DNA there:

This shows no paternal matches for Richard, but matches with two people on the maternal side. Michelle is at FTDNA here grandfather was Joseph Martin LeFevre. Richard descends from a first wife and Michelle from a second wife. That means that there is only one common ancestor between Michelle and Richard. From DNAPainter, I see that the match is from 0-8. That means that LeFevre is right for the left part of Richard’s

Line is at Gedmatch and goes back to Delisle who is on the LeFevre line. This would also be correct for the right side of Richard’s Chromosome 20. Here is Line and Lorraine:

That means that the right side of Lorraine’s Chromosome 20 is right. I don’t see Line matching Virginia at Gedmatch, so that would support the right side of Virginia’s Chromosome 20 also.

At this point, I’m at an impasse. It could be that Virginia has two extra crossovers here:

I’ll just leave this Chromosome as is for now and try to solve it later.

Summary and Conclusions

Here is my spreadsheet:

  • I went from 5 to 10 chromosomes completed.
  • I corrected one Chromosome I thought had had completed previously (Chromosome 9).
  • I improved some chromosomes without solving them, making them more useful
  • The chromosomes were helped by a match to second cousin once removed  John. He has his DNA at Ancestry and at Gedmatch.
  • MyHeritage was also helpful as they have ‘Theories of Relativity’ which give likely common ancestors and have detailed chromosome matching information.
  • Finally, DNAPainter is helpful in looking at specific chromosomes to see who the matches are there.
  • I will need to follow up on ‘painting’ Virginia and Lorraine.
  • I will also need to follow up on working on completing more of the visual phasing for the DNA of siblings Richard, Lorraine and Virginia.

My Son’s AncestryDNA Results Are In

I recently got an email saying my son JJ’s DNA results were in. JJ shows this on his main AncestryDNA page:

There is a third box for DNA Circles, but those take a while to form after JJ’s DNA is linked to a tree. Here is how JJ compares to his sister Heather:

Both JJ and Heather come out as mostly England, Wales and Northwestern Europe. However, JJ’s #2 Ethnicity is Eastern Europe and Russia and Heather’s #2 is Germanic Europe. Another thing that stands out is that JJ has about 150 more 4th cousin or closer matches.

JJ and Heather’s Ethnicity

One would think that the ethnicity would come out the same for Heather and JJ as siblings, but it doesn’t. Here is what JJ shows:

JJ shows 3% Baltic within the larger Eastern Europe and Russia.

Heather doesn’t show the 3% Baltic but has 3% France instead:

The overall effect is the same.

JJ and Heather Each Have One SubRegion of England

These are subtle differences. JJ has Yorkshire & Pennines within Northern England and the Midlands:

Heather has the SubRegion of Northern England & the Midlands, but doesn’t have it broken down further like JJ has:

That means that while JJ and Heather both have the subregion: Northern England & the Midlands, JJ has the sub-sub region of Yorkshire & Pennines.

JJ and Heather At Gedmatch Genesis

As siblings, JJ and Heather match each other in a way that they match no one else. Here is how JJ and Heather compare to each other on Chromosomes 19-21:

We each have a male and female copy of our chromosomes. However the results don’t distinguish which is which and combine the two. On the bottom of each chromosome above is a blue or black region. Blue is where JJ and Heather match each other and black is where they don’t match. On the top part, there is either green, red or yellow. Red is where there is no match. The yellow above the blue is called a half match also known as an HIR. The green is called a Fully Identical Region (or FIR).

What Do These Three Regions Mean?

No match means no match. However, a good way to look at this is in terms of grandparents. JJ and Heather got their DNA from their four grandparents: Hartley, Rathfelder, Jarek and Cavanaugh.

  • No Match – An example would be if JJ got his paternal DNA From Hartley and maternal DNA from Jarek in a no match region, that would mean that Heather must have gotten her paternal DNA from Rathfelder and her maternal DNA from Cavanaugh
  • HIR – These regions are a little trickier. This means that if JJ and Heather both got their paternal DNA from Hartley and JJ got his from Jarek, then Heather got her maternal DNA from Cavanaugh in that half matching region.
  • FIR – This means that if JJ got his DNA in this region from Hartley and Jarek, then Heather also would have to have gotten her DNA from Hartley and Jarek.

Visual Phasing for JJ and Heather

Visual Phasing is more difficult for two siblings than for three or more, but let’s try it on Chromosome 19. First I put some information onto a spreadsheet, but it is just a place for phasing:

In the middle no match, I represented the four grandparents as four different colors:

There looks like there may be a tiny match in the middle of the non-match, but I am ignoring that for now.

Cheating on the Rathfelder Side

JJ and Heather’s Rathfelder grandmother has been tested so this should be a big clue. Here is how JJ and Heather match their paternal grandmother:

What does this mean? This means that Heather matches her paternal grandmother on the whole length of the Chromosome. Again, I’m ignoring the non-match in the pink area (called the centromere).

In the chart above, I had Heather’s paternal as blue in the middle region. Let’s call blue Rathfelder.


The places where I have the vertical lines in the spreadsheet above correspond the changes in the ways that JJ and Heather match each other. These are called crossovers. That means that at these spots the DNA that they got from one grandparent will cross over to the DNA that they got from another one. These crossovers are either maternal or paternal.

Already, I also know that JJ’s Yellow will be Hartley. That is his only other choice for a paternal grandparent. Next I put the JJ’s Rathfelder DNA in:

Now JJ has two paternal crossovers. His paternal DNA goes from Rathfelder to Hartley and then back to Rathfelder. JJ’s crossover is at 7 Million, because that is where the DNA match with is Rathfelder grandmother stops.

Next, because JJ has a paternal crossover at position 46, that means that he probably doesn’t have a maternal crossover at the same spot. Because of that, I’ll move JJ’s green DNA a little to the left and all the way to the right:

On the right hand side there is a half match. That half match is blue, so the orange can extend to the right on Heather’s maternal side:

Using the same logic for the small segment on the left, I can move the orange a little way to the left:


Now I am stuck on the left HIR segment. I don’t know if the maternal crossover goes to Heather or to JJ. If it goes to Heather, then that means that the left maternal segment for JJ will be green. If JJ has the crossover, it will be orange. A maternal cousin match could solve this.

Painting JJ’s Chromosomes

I’ll come back to visual phasing later. Now I’d like to paint JJ’s chromosomes. I had painted Heather’s previously. This shows Heather’s known maternal matches on her Jarek side:

These appear to be four siblings or close relatives. They are not relatives that Heather knows, but relatives with known Jarek ancestors. I could use this information for visual phasing as these chromosomes should be easier to visually phase.

The Same Matches But Matched To JJ

Back To Visual Phasing

JJ has a pretty good match on Chromosome 18, so I’ll try that one next:

Here we have almost the same scenario as in Chromosome 19, except that there is one more crossover on the right. I put in numbers at 9.8 and 53 to give a general idea of where we are. These correspond to where JJ and Heather match each other.

Here is how JJ and Heather’s paternal Rathfelder grandmother match them on Chromosome 18:

This time JJ gets a full dose of Rathfelder DNA.


I put in Heather’s Rathfelder DNA also.

Next, I want to visually phase Heather and JJ’s first maternal side DNA. Actually, I phased it on Chromosome 19, but I couldn’t identify it due to lack of DNA matches with known ancestry. Now we can do that. My guess is that green will be Jarek and orange will be Cavanaugh. By eye it looks that way.

JJ’s match with one Jarek descendant goes from 33 to 53.8, so that is the case.

I filled in the yellow Hartley for Heather as it should go up to where Heather matches her Rathfelder grandmother. Now I am stuck, but I have identified a Cavanaugh segment for Heather based on JJ’s Jareck DNA.

Chromosome 4 – Some Cavanaugh DNA for JJ

From DNA Painter, here are JJ’s Jarek DNA matches:

Here are Heather’s Jarek DNA matches:

Heather has extra Jarek matches that JJ doens’t have. That means that JJ probably has Cavanaugh DNA where Heather has her first two Jarek DNA matches.

Unfortunately, Chromosome 4 is longer and will have more crossovers:

This time I’ll start at the FIR. That means that JJ and Heather have the match on the same two grandparents on their paternal and maternal sides. I’ll have to switch the colors to keep them consistent. I said that JJ should be going from Cavanaugh to Jarek:

Here is JJ’s first identified maternal crossover.

Next, I’d like to add in the Rathfelder DNA:

The blue is Rathfelder. The matching segments information is how Heather and JJ match their grandmother. This is the same as the blue Rathfelder segments above. Where there isn’t blue Rathfelder DNA, I have put in yellow Hartley DNA.

Heather’s first Jarek descendant match goes from 85M to 109M:

At this point, I am stuck again:

There is a maternal crossover at 85, but I can’t tell if it belongs to JJ or Heather.

A Spreadsheet For JJ and Heather Using Gedmatch Genesis

At Genesis, I used JJ’s and my own DNA to make two more kits for JJ. One has an M1 designation and one is P1 for maternal and paternal. Genesis has a utility called Segment Search. I’ll use this once for JJ’s maternal matches and once for his paternal matches.

JJ’s Maternal Matches

Here are some of JJ’s maternal matches. I downloaded about 1,000 of them:

I made them pink for maternal. The green matches are the ones over 15 cM. JJ’s largest match above is with Heather. Note that JJ has maternal matches on Chromosome 4 between 80 and 89M. That means that he should not have a maternal crossover at 85M. That means that Heather should have the maternal crossover at 85M. Let’s look at Heather’s maternal results next.

Heather’s Maternal Matches at Genesis

Here are Heather’s Chromosome 4 maternal matches:

Notice that Heather has no matches going through position 85. Actually, Heather has matches going up to 84.3 and then starting again at about the same spot or at 85M. This tells me that Heather has a maternal crossover where I thought.

If I did this right, I should find Cavanaugh ancestor matches for Heather and JJ in their orange areas and Jarek ancestor matches in their green areas of Chromosome 4. Unfortunately, Heather and JJ have small matches in their orange areas which means that the relationships represented by those matches could be quite distant.

Near position 14, there aren’t a lot of matches, so I would be guessing more than usual there as to where the crossover goes. What about the right side of Heather and JJ’s Chromosome 4? First I need to figure out where the crossover is. For that I need to look at how JJ and Heather match each other at full resolution:

Each  ^ is 1M, so the change from all green to more yellow is at about 167.6M. Again, neither JJ nor Heather have good matches in that area, so I can’t tell where their maternal crossover is using that method.

Summary and Conclustions

  • I started looking at JJ’s AncestryDNA test results. I first compared JJ’s ethnicity with what his sister Heather showed. JJ shows a more detailed sub-region in England compared to Heather. JJ shows a Baltic region that Heather doesn’t show and Heather shows a France Region that JJ doesn’t have. The overall effect is the same, but the smaller details vary a bit.
  • I looked at how JJ and Heather compare to eatch other with HIRs, FIRs and no-match areas. Using these, I was able to start to visually phase Heather and JJ. I haven’t been able to identify matches along JJ and Heather’s Cavanaugh maternal grandparent side, so that made the phasing a little more difficult. JJ and Heather’s paternal side is already phased by comparing their results to their Rathfelder grandmother.
  • I downloaded JJ and Heather’s maternal matches from Gedmatch Genesis. Some of these matches were helpful in assigning maternal crossovers for their visual phasing maps.
  • Some other things that I could do would be AutoClustering JJ’s AncestryDNA results, more DNA Painting and more match identification. I would still like to figure out at least one match on JJ or Heather’s Cavanaugh side.








Visual Phasing Six Siblings with the Fox Spreadsheet: Part 20: Chromosome 19

I feel like I’m getting near the end of this series. So far, I have been able to solve the first 18 Chromosomes plus the X Chromosome.

Chromosome 19

Here is my first cut at crossover lines assigned to me and my five siblings:

The crossovers seemed straightforward. Actually, I think that there is an additional crossover for Jon (F) at the very end.

Adding Position Numbers to the Crossovers

Next I add the position numbers to the crossovers:

I didn’t have any easy position answer for the first and last crossovers. I could get this from Gedmatch.

Cousin Matches

I hope that I have enough cousin matches to solve Chromosome 19. I need at least one paternal match and one maternal match to solve the Chromosome. It looks like I should have one of each, so that is good. One of the best cousin matches is with Rathfelder cousin Anita:

This is a conservative rendition of her match. Jim, Jon and Sharon will also have Lentz DNA where they do not match Anita (in the area where Anita matches Heidi).

Here is Hartley cousin James’ matches with my family:

This may be enough to solve Chromosome 19:

Note that Jon and Sharon have a HIR for most of the Chromosome:

This is true except for the very ends of the Chromosome where Sharon has a crossover on the left and Jon has one on the right. Here is how that works out:

To be HIR, that means that two siblings have the same DNA from one grandparent and that they have different grandparent DNA on the other side. It turns out that Sharon and Jon share the same Lentz DNA but Jon has Hartley DNA and Sharon has Frazer DNA on the paternal side.

I got this far:

I don’t think that Jon really has a crossover on the right. Here is a close-up of the comparison of Jon (F) and Sharon on the right side of the Chromosome:

Jon and Sharon were HIR for most of the Chromosome. If Jon has a crossover, then their comparison would have to to either FIR or NIR. If this is a NIR, then I should see some red and I don’t. Now, I’m changing my mind back. Perhaps Jon does has a small FIR. If Jon has a Fully Identical Region with Sharon, then he would have a HIR with his other siblings:


The F & S comparison looks greener on the end compared to the other F comparisons.

This image doesn’t give enough detail to see the small crossovers, but shows that overall, I had the right idea with the visual phasing:

Summary and Conclusions

  • Heidi had a full Frazer Chromosome.
  • Jon and Sharon both had a full Lentz Chromosome.
  • Jon either had a full Hartley Chromosome or nearly full Hartley Chromosome.
  • I spent some time figuring out whether or not Jon had a crossover near the end. It was a judgement call and amounts to bug dust as it is such a small inconsequential piece of DNA.
  • Anita was our only maternal match, so she was very important for the solving of this Chromosome.




Visual Phasing Six Siblings with the Fox Spreadsheet: Part 18: Chromosome 17

In my last Blog, I looked at Chromosome 15. This is because I took Chromosome 16 out-of-order by mistake. On to Chromosome 17,

Chromosome 17

Here is my first cut:

The first four crossovers are fairly close together. However, Chromosome 17 is much smaller than Chromosome 1. The spreadsheets are all the same width. That means that the spacing is further apart on the higher numbered chromosomes. That makes the crossovers easier to see.

Next, I take a second look and enter the crossover positions in a spreadsheet:

I needed the first four positions during my first look to get the order of the crossovers right.

Cousin Matches

I like this part of the process as it makes things go faster and shows crossovers. Hartley 1st cousin once removed Joyce is the best match for these six siblings:

Joyce’s matches point out two paternal crossovers for Jon and one for Lori. This is what I get for Joyce’s matches:

[Note here that I added orance Hartley on the Lori’s first segment by mistake. This is corrected later in the Blog.]

I didn’t fill in between Lori’s L and L segment. That is because Lori has two crossovers and could go from Hartley to Frazer and back to Hartley again. Sharon and Heidi had only one crossover each and would have needed two to go from Hartley to Frazer to Hartley. As they only had one crossover each, I filled in the gap between the two Hartley areas of DNA with more Hartley DNA. Jim had no crossover in that area, so I was able to fill in his gap with Hartley DNA also.

A Maternal Match

If I have a maternal match, it may be enough to solve the Chromosome. Lentz cousin Judith matches three siblings on the right-hand side of Chromosome 17:

There are not many crossovers, so I can expand the DNA to the right. I also gave Rathfelder DNA to Sharon, Heidi, and Lori on the right as they didn’t match Lentz cousin Judith.

Lori has the most crossover, hence a few blanks. To fill in the blanks I go vertical. That means I go up to where the Gedmatch sibling pair comparisons are. However, before I do that, I take a glance at the Segment Map. It looks like I have at least one mistake. By reviewing my map, I see this:

I missed a crossover for Jim (V) at the pink circle. I was going from right to left, so I’ll erase Jim’s maternal DNA to the left of the circled crossover. I had already added Hartley to the left of the V crossover based on a match with Hartley cousin Joyce. That means that the crossover at the circled area should go from Rathfelder to Lentz going right to left.

I can shrink the Segment Map very small to see that I have fixed the problem:

Going Vertical for Lori

Now I can go above for Lori to fill in her missing DNA with FIRs and NIRs. Here is an issue:

The Jon (F) and Lori comparison has a green FIR at the top of the image above for the first segment. That means that Lori should have Frazer/Lentz DNA, but I have her with Hartley DNA already. I had added that above by mistake. Lori does not match cousin Joyce in that segment and should have Frazer DNA there:

Next, if I have Lori’s paternal side right (which I didn’t before), she should go from Lentz to Rathfelder  and then back to Lentz on her maternal side. Then at the last L crossover above, she would go back to Rathfelder.

On my computer, this is the solution to Chromosome 17 at 40% size:

To quote an old joke, “I thought I made a mistake once, but I was wrong”. I thought I saw an error, but I’m not used to this comparison. When I look more closely the top and bottom of the image above match.


My Previous Attempt at Chromosome 17

I first started working on Chromosome 17 in January of 2016. This is what I came up with:

At the time, I was working with three siblings and didn’t have as many cousin matches.

Here is the new analysis. The colors are different and the maternal and paternal are reversed. Not only that, the sibling order is different:

There are also more crossovers in the newer version due to twice as many siblings. However, despite all the differences, the results were the same. It seems a bit ironic that I used the same colors that Fox adopted for his spreadsheet.

Summary and Conclusions

  • I missed one of Jim’s crossovers, but was able to fix it.
  • I wrongly assigned Hartley DNA to Lori, but I was able to find that error and fix it.
  • Jim, Sharon and Heidi have full Hartley DNA on the paternal side of their Chromosome 17.
  • Joel has  a full paternal copy of Frazer.
  • Sharon and Heidi have full Rathfelder maternal copies of Chromosome 17.
  • When looking for Frazer or Hartley matches on Chromosome 17, I know the best people to go to to look for matches.
  • Between all six siblings we recieved the full amount of DNA from our four grandparents.
  • A comparison with an earlier attempt I did at solving Chromsome 17 for three siblings matches with my current results.





Visual Phasing Six Siblings with the Fox Spreadsheet: Part 17: Chromosome 15

I went a bit out of order as my last Chromosome solved was Chromosome 16. That just shows how easy it is to make a mistake or get mixed up.

Chromosome 15

On the right, on a separate spreadsheet, I write down the initials and the locations of the crossovers. The three locations in yellow indicate that I am not sure of the order of the crossovers. I was also not sure of the last crossover. However, I have convinced myself that there is one there:

I believe that the last segment is a small HIR in the V & D and the V &L comparisons. This last crossover will go to Jim (V).

Next, I go through the crossovers again and write down the position numbers:

This gives me a second look at the crossovers. I think I have this right now. I am missing the last position number which is not a big deal. I can get it from the full resolution comparison between Jim (V) and Jon (F):

The beginning of the match is at 95.5M. Each ^ is 1M, so the beginning of the FIR (and thus the crossover) is as 99.4.

Cousin Matches

This Chromosome should be easy to solve. Here are matches with Hartley cousin Patricia:

My first match ends at 41.4 while Jon and Lori’s matches end at 43.7M. That seems to indicate a crossover that I didn’t see on the paternal side. However, my match with Hartley cousin Beth clears that up:

Beth shows my match goes way beyond 41.4 to 53.9M. Here is how I fill in paternal DNA based on Beth’s match with me and my siblings:

Here I have assumed that a no-vote for Hartley is a vote for Frazer.

Match with maternal Rathfelder cousin Inese may be enough to solve the Chromosome:

Next, I should be able to finish by extending DNA to the crossovers and comparing the sibling pairs from Gedmatch:


However, when I get to the right-hand side, I see that I have done something wrong. The Joel (D) and Lori comparison show an FIR in the next to last segment. However, to do that would require a double crossover for Lori and she only has one. Perhaps the Segment Map will show my mistake:

Here I boxed some areas that are right in the sibling comparison, but wrong in the Segment Map (which represents my Chromosome Map). Interestingly, the first mistake is at V but at the F & D comparison.

The Segment Map pointed out exactly where the problem was. I have a crossover at V which doesn’t make sense. I should only have crossovers at D. I’ll take that V crossover out and carry it over to my next crossover:

After my next crossover, I see I have an FIR with Lori. That means that my crossover has to be on my maternal side (Lentz).

Next I won’t outline all the problems, but I do see one at the top:

This one starts with Jon (F). There should be an FIR, but I have NIR. I can fix this by reversing Jon’s crossover at F. This is confirmed by an FIR between Jon and Heidi:

When I reverse Jon’s crossover, I see that I have corrected the two errors:

Here is what I get for a finished Chromosome 15:

This looks like a match:

Summary and Conclusions

  • Two mistakes were solved by comparing the Segment Map to the Gedmatch sibling pair comparisons.
  • Joel and Lori have recieved a full dose of Hartley on their paternal sides.
  • Sharon has a full dose of Frazer. Jim has 99% Frazer DNA on his paternal side of Chromosome 15.
  • A bit of Rathfelder is missing.
  • So far, it seems like the paternal Hartley and Frazer are the most popular for full Chromosomes. Maternal Rathfelder is least likely to be represented across the chromosome for some reason.  This may have to do with the fact that females tend to have more crossovers than males on average.






Visual Phasing Six Siblings with the Fox Spreadsheet: Part 16: Chromosome 16

The last two Chromosomes (13 and 14) went well. We will see what is in store for Chromosome 15. Actually, I see that I have been working on Chromosome 16, so I’ll go with that.

Chromosome 16

After a break with the two easy Chromosomes, it looks like I am back to a bit of a challenge:

I have two difficult areas, signified by lack of siblings’ initials.

Cousin Matches – the Easy Way Out

It is my hope that cousin matches will define some of the confusing crossover areas. I’ll start with Hartley cousin Maury:

Maury shows that Jim has a crossover at 72.3 in the second problem area.


Once I saw that crossover, it appeared that there was only one other crossover (for S). This is what I get:

Back to Maury

That is what I get out of Maury’s match. I note that the end of Maury’s first match with Lori is at 20.1M and the end of the other matches is at 21.1, so there is a possible crossover for Lori there. I’ll hold off on that for now until I find other information.

Matches with Rathfelder cousin Anita fill in some maternal DNA:

Matches with Lentz cousin Joan give the other side of the maternal coin:

Figuring Out the Two Missing Crossovers with a Detailed Analysis

The first step is to look at the V & H comparison at Gedmatch full resolution:

This gives the positions of the crossovers at 20.4 and 21.6.

The V & L comparison has two very close changes:

This is because Jim (V) and Lori go from NIR and quickly to an FIR with a small FIR in the middle.

Here are the results:

The FD and DL are for the crossover for Joel (D) that I already have. I interpret the other matches to mean that there is a close double crossover for Jim (V). One is at 20.3 and the other is at about 21M.

Expanding Around the Double V Crossover

My next strategy is to work around Jim (V). This is because I’m not totally sure of the two crossovers.

I’ll use the gedmatch sibling comparisons to expand the DNA more:

At this point, I see that Jim (V) and Heidi are NIR in the larger missing segment above. That means that Jim needs to be Hartley /Rathfelder there which agrees with the proposed double crossover for Jim (V).

I don’t know how to fill in the little V-V segment. This would have to be either Frazer/Rathfelder or Hartley/Lentz. If it was Hartley/Lentz, then Jim would be FIR with Jon, Joel and Sharon in that little segment.

Here is Jim and Jon:

Here’s Jim and Joel:

Here’s JIma and Sharon:

The question is: Is there a FIR between about 20.8 and 21.2M? I can’t tell, but I’ll say there is:


Basically, it is not a big deal either way, so it’s a judgement call.

Here’s my crossover list:

After working the DNA a bit, I get this:

This comparison between the Segment Map and the Gedmatch sibling chart confirms Chromosome 16

Summary and Conclusions

  • Once the crossovers are accurately identified, it is fairly easy to solve the Chromosome.
  • Lori and Joel got a full dose of Hartley. Heidi got a full dose of Frazer.
  • There is a small segment of Rathfelder DNA missing.




Visual Phasing Six Siblings with the Fox Spreadsheet: Part 6: Chromosome 5

I’ll jump into Chromosome 5. Using the Fox Spreadsheet, I’ll make some potential crossover lines, assign them to people and put the crossover positions into a spreadsheet. As I start to do this, I see an issue already. It looks like I have a crossover near the very beginning of the Chromosome. I can find the position of the crossover by comparing myself with my sister Sharon at a low resolution:

My crossover with Sharon is at position 1.2M:

Here is my first try at assigning crossovers:

I had a bit of trouble figuring out the two crossovers in red:

In my spreadsheet, I called the trouble crossovers F/S and D/H.

Time to Look at Cousin Matches

This is one of my favorite parts of the process. I’ll start with two Hartley cousins. These will show some paternal crossovers:

Actually, they show the same crossover twice for Sharon at either 35.1 or 34.7. This solves the mystery of the first unknown crossover. It belongs to Sharon. I’ll show that on my spreadsheet:

I could tell that that crossover was Sharon’s first crossover as the one in question was at position 35M. Sharon’s next crossover that I had identified was at 39.5M.

Next, I’ll add all the cousin matches to the Chromosome Map:

Adding Maternal Matches

Next I’ll add maternal matches to see how I compare with the Segment Map. Cousin Carolyn on the Lentz side has some good matches:

I can see a maternal crossover for me (Joel) and one for Heidi. Here is a conservative rendition of Carolyn’s Lentz matches:


Catherine’s Cousin Matches and Two Inferred Crossovers

Here is how Joel, Sharon and Lori match Catherine on our Rathfelder side. Lori has a match to the left of where Joel and Sharon match Catherine. That implies crossovers for Joel and Sharon. Because there is no overlap between the match and the crossovers, I can’t exactly see the crossovers. However, I do know that both crossovers for Sharon and Joel are on the maternal side which is a big help.

Lori would need two crossovers to go from Rathfelder to Lentz and back to Ratchfelder and I only show one. I’ll assume that the one crossover for Lori on the right hand side of the Chromosome is right for Lori and say that belongs to her paternal side.

Check Your Work

This must be a saying I learned from High School. I have this:

Gedmatch has this:

That is a problem. I’ll add a Frazer match for Jim and then take another look:

The places I circled are D &S and D & L comparisons. The common denominator is me, Joel (D). I’ll fix that by just erasing my segments on the right side of the Chromosome.

Next, I work from the middle of the Chromosome where the DNA agrees with Gedmatch and work to the right:

This is the section to the right of the crossover that I haven’t put a name to yet. I didn’t have some information for Heidi also, so I didn’t fill her in. This looks to check with the segment map:

Next, I’ll fill in Heidi and Joel using the Gemdatch comparisons.

This points out the problem. I need another crossover near Lori’s last crossover. This crossover can be seen here:

The crossover is at the third line – currently for Lori. As I am D, this is clearly a Joel (D) crossover as there is a D in these three comparisons. In order to find the position of my crossover, I have to look at a full resolution image at Gedmatch. I’ll pick my match with Sharon and look around Lori’s crossover which is at 167.5M.

The left side of the bar is at 160M. Each ^ is one M. I’ll say the FIR ends at 167.3 which is right before Lori’s crossover at 167.5. Here is my list of crossovers:

The comparison for the right side should work as I used Gedmatch to produce the map:

Problem solved – for the right side of the Chromosome.

I’ll use the same principle for the left hand side. The unnamed crossover is based on the comparison between Joel and Heidi. I’ll fill in the other four siblings and then fill in Joel and Heidi based on the other four and see what happens.

Here, Heidi does not need a crossover, but I need a maternal one to go from purple to green. Here is my pre-fact checked answer:

The Moment of Truth

This is like comparing your test results to the answer sheet on the right:

Summary and Conclusions

  • I find it helps to work from the known to the unknown. To fix discrepancies, I identify where and who the discrepancy belongs to. I erase those results. I fill in other siblings around the discrepancy. This usually corrects the problem.
  • My brother Jim filled in a lot of missing Frazer DNA. This could be important for Frazer matching.
  • This is the first Chromosome with some missing grandparent DNA. There is a small segment of Rathfelder DNA missing between crossovers H and L or between 55.4 and 61.5M. Fortunately, my mother has been DNA tested, so it isn’t really missing. It was just not passed down to any of her six children.
  • The run of full non-recombinied grandparents continues. This time Jon has a full Hartley paternal Chromosome. Jim has a full Frazer paternal Chromosome. I have heard that males have fewer crossovers than females. This seems to confirm that.
  • My crossover position spreadsheet still comes in handy – especially for the crossovers that are close to each other.
  • I used the Gedmatch full resolution chromosome browser to find one close crossover and one crossover very near the beginning of the Chromosome.